School of Food Technology and Nutrition, Technological Educational Institution of Thessaloniki, Sindos Thessaloniki, Greece
The purpose of this paper is to describe the factors affecting olive oil composition and to overview the effect of its composition on nutrition and human health. It is well accepted that the high mono-unsaturation of olive oil and the presence of several other constituents such as phenols and tocopherols, chlorophyll and pheophytin, sterols, squalene, aroma and flavor compounds and other exhibit a significant role on the health. Olive oil as a highly monounsaturated oil, is resistant to oxidation. Also the presence of phenols, tocopherols and other natural antioxidants prevent lipid oxidation within the body eliminating the formation of free radicals which may cause cell destruction. The aroma and the flavor compounds of olive oil, as well as, the chlorophyll and pheophytin pigments increase the stomach secretion and facilitate the absorption of the natural antioxidants, which furthermore protect the body tissues from oxidation. Epidemiological studies suggest that the high consumption of the monounsaturated olive oil in Mediterranean countries, is related with the low rates of cardiovascular disease (CHD), cancer of the breast and of high life expectancy.
1. MAIN OLIVE OIL CONSTITUENTS
Olive oil contains triacylglycerols and small quantities of free fatty acids, glycerol, pigments, aroma compounds, sterols, tocopherols, phenols, unidentified resinous components and other (Kiritsakis, 1998). Among these constituents the unsaponifiable fraction (Fig. 1), which covers a small percentage (0,5-1,5 %) plays a significant role on human health.
1.1 Oleic acid
Olive oil contains a high percentage of the monounsaturated oleic acid. Thus, it is a natural monounsaturated oil. This particular fatty acid reduces LDL-cholesterol, which is responsible for the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque, and increases the HDL- cholesterol. The latter is removed from arterial cells.
1.2 Hydrocarbon squalene
The hydrocarbon squalene, an important metabolic factor, is present in high
percentages in olive oil (Fig.1).
Olive oil contains the tocopherols α-, β-, γ-, δ- (α-tocopherol covers almost 88%). The tocopherol content of olive oil depends not only on the presence of these compounds in olive fruit but also on several other factors, involved in the transportation, storage and olive fruit processing. According to Viola (1997), the ratio of vitamin-E to polyunsaturated fatty acids in olive oil is better than to other edible oils.
Figure 1: Unsaponifiable components of olive oil.
The color of olive oil is mainly related to the presence of chlorophyll and pheophytin. Carotenoids are also responsible for the color of olive oil. The presence of these constituents depend on several factors, such as cultivar, soil and climate, fruit maturation as well as applied conditions during olive fruit processing.
1.5 Phenolic compounds
Olive fruit contains simple and complex phenolic compounds. Most of these compounds are passing into the oil, increase its oxidative stability and improve the taste. Hydrohytyrosol, tyrosol and some phenolic acids are mainly found in olive oil (Kiritsakis,1998). The phenol content and the specific composition of these phenols in olive oil depend on the altitude where the olive trees are grown, on the harvesting time and on the processing conditions (Cinquanta et al.,1997; Kiritsakis, 1998).
1.6 Aroma components
Figure 2: Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis of the flavor components of three samples of olive oil (a: fruity flavor, b and c: with defects) (Tateo et al., 1993).
Figure 3: Effect of free radicals in polyunsaturated fatty acids of membranes and DNA. (Viola, 1997).
4. OLIVE OIL AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
Recent studies showed that LDL-cholesterol oxidation promotes the atherosclerotic plaque formation (Kafatos, 1995; Lenart et al., 1998). Diets rich in olive oil on the other hand showed a stable ratio between total cholesterol and HDL. and a reduction of LDL-cholesterol. Even though the role of triacylglycerols in coronary disease is still unclarrified, the substitution of olive oil with complex starches in the diet, decreases the triacylglycerols in blood serum. Greece, a member of the seven country study with the highest consumption of olive oil, shows the lowest number of deaths from coronary disease (Trichopoulou, 1993). Resent studies in South Italy, showed an increase in cholesterol content almost 2% every year, after the abundance of Mediterranean diet, in which olive oil is the major fat component.
In conclusion, oleic acid and mainly the unsaponifiable fraction of olive oil, such as phenols, tocopherols, chlorophyll, squalene and aroma components, exhibit a high nutritional and biological value, resulting in good human health.
Cinquanta, L., Esti, M., and Notte, E. L., Evolution of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil during storage, J Am Oil Chem Soc., 74 : 1259 (1997).
Kafatos, A. Olive oil consumption in Crete. One of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean – Gretan diet. Olivae: 56: 22 (1995).
Kiritsakis, A. Olive oil- Second Edition, From the tree to the table. Food and Nutrition Press, Inc., Trumbull, Connecticut, 006611, USA (1998).
Lenart, E.B., Willet, W., and Kiritsakis, A.,Ibid.
Tateo, E., Brunelli, N., Cucurachi, S., and Ferrillo, A.,. New trends in the study of the merits and shortcomings of olive oil in organoleptic terms, in correlation with the GC/MS analysis of the aromas. In Food Flavors, Ingredients and Composition, G. Charalampous, editor, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam (1993).
Trichopoulou, A., Katsoyanni K., and Gnardellis, C., The traditional Greek diet. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Suppl 1). 47:76 (1993).
Viola, P., Olive oil and Health. International Olive Oil Council, Madrid Spain (1997).