Global Council for Innovation in Rapeseed and Canola
NEWSLETTER 11, January 2022
Happy New Year and welcome to GCIRC Newsletter 11, January 2022!
Table of contents
Activity/ News of the association:
GCIRC General Assembly and new Executive Board
The GCIRC Technical Meeting 2021
16th IRC Sydney, Australia, 2023
Welcome to New GCIRC members
Value chains and regional news
2021 Rapeseed harvest over the world
EUROPE CANADA Consequences for the market 2021 Rapeseed harvest: Australia India China
USA: Brassica carinata based biofuels (reported by Wilf Keller)
Canola: Canola week 2021
European Union: European Commission Publishes Roadmap on Legislative Ini-tiative for Plants Produced by Certain Genome Editing Techniques
GENETICS & BREEDING CROP PROTECTION AGRONOMY & CROP MANAGEMENT PHYSIOLOGY QUALITY & PRODUCTS ECONOMY and MARKETS MUSTARD and Other Brassicae Miscellaneous
Upcoming international and national events
Happy New Year and welcome to GCIRC Newsletter 11, January 2022.
World production of rapeseed/canola continues to experience headwinds globally, with drought conditions impacting the Canadian crop, floods in parts of Europe, along with the ever-increasing disease and insect pests eroding yields. On a brighter note, the canola crop in Australia has recorded two consecutive years of record production on the back of high canola prices and above average yields (see Australian report later in the newsletter).
Over the past two years, we all have been impacted somewhat by Covid as we go about our usual business and how we adapt to the challenges it brings, especially disruptions to travel, whether domestically or internationally. But with challenge comes opportunity. How we communicate and interact with colleagues, has been front and centre of conducting business through the ever-evolving IT space.
In September 2021, the GCIRC Technical meeting was successfully conducted on-line, as was Canola week in Canada in late November. The GCIRC board will conduct more regular and proactive contact, hence quarterly meetings have been scheduled for 2022.
I would like to take this opportunity to welcome back existing board members and to extend a warm welcome to the new members joining the board for the next 4-year term. I look for-ward to working with you all as we have much to accomplish going forward.
The 16th International Rapeseed Conference 2023 will be utilising a hybrid format with a strong focus on delegates present at Sydney, but also accommodating on-line participation for those delegates that could be impacted by Covid travel restrictions. The organising com-mittee are preparing a program, that will deliver both cutting edge science and solutions to maximise the conference theme ‘Global Crop – Golden Opportunities’ through six thematic pillars.
Robert Wilson, GCIRC President
Activity/ News of the association:
GCIRC General Assembly and new Executive Board
The GCIRC Ordinary General Assembly, chaired by Prof Wolfgang Friedt, was held online for the first time due to the pandemic’s situation, in satisfying conditions even if interactions are less than usual in face-to-face meetings, and with the support of a controlled voting device currently used for asso-ciations. The attendance was sufficient for voting regular issues, with 65% of present or represented members (61 present, 8 proxies and 37 absent). Following the presentation of the past activities, the financial report for the period was validated. The quality of the organization and contents of the online Technical Meeting was much appreciated, and compliments made to the organizers and mod-erators of the sessions. The GCIRC membership grows slowly to 84 active members and 12 Honorary Members in 2021 (71 and 12 in 2019), and with first representatives from USA and Chile. The GCIRC has now 8 sponsors: the AOF from Australia, the Canola Council of Canada, NIAB from UK, PSPO from Poland, SFO from Sweden, SZPO from Czeck Republic, Terres Inovia from France and UFOP from Germany.
The GA key decision was the appointment of the new Executive Board for a period of 4 years. The Board is deeply renewed, several members retiring; we must highlight that for the first time, India and USA are represented in the Board. 97% of the present and represented members approved the new Board (57 votes approving, 2 against, and 4 neutral).
The new Executive Board held its first online meeting on December 13th chaired by Rob Wilson, to set the first elements of its coming works towards Sydney 2023. Decision has been taken to meet quar-terly.
We thank the former Executive Board team for its action under Wolfgang Friedt leadership: during this 2017-2021 period, we revised the GCIRC strategy, agreed on a new logo and a moto and trans-lated the acronym, revised the statutes and not the least, we decided to open the association widely: all these proposals were validated by the General Assembly, at the time of the very successful con-gress in Berlin. It makes a strong basis to allow GCIRC to better adapt to a rapidly changing and some-times unpredictable context.
The GCIRC Technical Meeting 2021
Despite the sanitary situation which led to hold online this Technical Meeting initially scheduled in Poznan, Poland, the 2021 GCIRC Technical meeting was a success with a high quality of the presenta-tions and 165 participants, among them 84 GCIRC members and 81 other participants. Special thanks to Iwona Bartkoviak-Broda and to committees’ leaders Samantha Cook and Véronique Barthet who led the sessions and debates on insects pests management and on rapeseed protein production and added value.
Further information on the contents and debates will be given in the next issues of this newsletter.
16th IRC Sydney, Australia, 2023
Planning for the conference is progressing well and meeting time-line milestones. Now that the Christmas – New Year festive season is behind us and normal work has resumed, activities will ramp up.
In line with the conference theme ‘Global Crop – Golden Opportunities’, the six theme Chairs are assembling their committees (both domestic and international members) to deliver an interesting and dynamic program that will interact with and across all thematic pillars: - GENETICS, GENOMICS and BREEDING - CROP PROTECTION - AGRONOMY, PHYSOLOGY & CROP MANAGEMENT - QUALITY & PRODUCTS Science and technical focus on oil and protein for food, feed & indus-trial - END USE / CONSUMPTION Current needs from end users for - food, feed and fuels - ECONOMY & MARKETS - Big picture on global oils and fats markets/climate/policies
We look forward to welcoming as many friends and colleagues as possible to Sydney in September 2023. Remember, Sydney – “It’s closer than you think”.
Welcome to the new members who joined the GCIRC since our last newsletter in August:
WANASUNDARA Janitha, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, CANADA KOSCIELNY Chad, CORTEVA, CANADA SERNYK, Larry, Retired, USA PARKIN Isobel, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, CANADA DUNCAN Robert, University of Manitoba, CANADA GACEK-BOGUCKA Katarzyna, IHAR, POLAND GOURGUES Mathieu, BAYER SEEDS, FRANCE VAID Bhupesh, CORTEVA, INDIA GOYAL Saurabh, Kamadgiriseeds, INDIA YADAVA Devendra Kumar, ICAR, INDIA NIEMANN Janetta, Poznań University of Life Sciences, POLAND ZOU Jun, Huazhong Agricultural University, CHINA HEMKER Reinhard, LIMAGRAIN, GERMANY PAJIC Vladimir, CARGILL, CANADA MARJANOVIC JEROMELA Ana, IFVC, SERBIA YADAV Shankar Lal, SEEDWORKS, INDIA PAREEK Satish, Rallis India Limited, INDIA MEENA Prabhu Dayal, ICAR, INDIA THORENSON Dale, US Canola Association, USA
We take this opportunity to remind all members that they can modify their personal page, especially indicating their fields of interest, to facilitate interactions.
Value chains and regional news
2021 Rapeseed harvest over the world
The European rapeseed production has gone through an exciting rollercoaster trip during the last years. Extremely influenced from the 3 dry summers (2018 – 2020) rapeseed suffered a lot from unfavourable conditions and changing management intensity. Farmers went out from the previous cash crop with varying degrees of success. The growing season 2021 with a cooler spring and long flowering period offered excellent conditions for high yield. “Did the rapeseed deliver?”
Review on the climate conditions in 2020/2021
The last year’s favourable conditions during autumn should have enabled a successful establishment before winter.
The start in August and first part of September 2020 underlines again, that we are working with Mother Nature. While farmers in France, Southeast Romania, Bulgaria, or Ukraine suffered from a long-lasting drought, the rapeseed growers in United Kingdom, Belarus, Poland, Czech Republic, or Northwest Hungary faced a rain surplus. As a result, rapeseed was sown with some delay, established slowly or inhomogeneous with the typical difficulties for the further management. During the following weeks, we could observe an opposite picture. While France suffered from rain deficit during August 2020, we saw rain deficit again in March-April (Central Europe, UK, South of France) and then a stronger rain surplus in June -July 2021. But not only in Western Europe, also in larger areas of South Poland, Czech Republic or Northern Hungary continuous rainfalls were dominating. At the same time, a temperature accumulation came up as a broad belt from the Baltics to Bulgaria. (See GCIRC Newsletter N°10, August 2021) In the consequence, spring crops, like sunflower, suffered in their production extremely from these conditions. Finally, also the rapeseed development in Western and Central Europe was regionally behind the typical growth stage in this time of the year.
One highlight during the rapeseed season 2020/2021 was the pretty tough winter, especially the 3 cold waves between beginning of January 2021 and mid of February with temperatures down to -20 or even -25 °C, the dominating opinion at this time was a higher expectation of winter killing, especially in the countries around the Baltic Sea. But except of some smaller winter damages farmers were lucky, as in most cases the rapeseed was protected by a stronger snow coverage (up to 20 cm). Later on, the rapeseed benefited from an untypical cold spring with lower temperatures - and even a cold spell in April on Western and Central Europe and the Balkan - and sufficient rainfall. Even weak developed canopies were able to develop a promising package of side branches during the bud stage. The cold period was helpful to reduce the appearance of insect pests like the critical pollen beetle feeding on the buds before flowering. Additionally, the cooler temperatures in May prolonged the flowering stage, a strong base for higher yield potentials, but the higher moisture also deliver a continuous risk for late infections with Sclerotinia. Later, farmers realized that these wet conditions enabled hidden infections, which had a bigger impact on the results than expected.
Yield estimations during summer 2021
Based on the cold spring, which was favourable for the further rapeseed development, market experts finetuned their harvest estimations step by step. The highly acclaimed MARS Bulletin report present in their March 2021 edition an average yield for EU27 of 3,26 t/ha (4 % more vs. 2020 and 7 % more than 5-year average), especially the countries in Southeast Europe like Hungary (+ 27 %), Romania (+ 30 %) or Bulgaria (+25 %) underline the high expectations in comparison with the yield figures from 2020. The further monthly reports and their yield estimations just repeat the beginning figures and the favourable conditions for rapeseed in 2021, except of a few countries in Northeast Europe. The report of August showed just for Poland with 3 t/ha (- 6 % vs. 2020), Lithuania (2,95 t/ha, -13 %), Latvia (2,88 t/ha, - 6 %) and Estonia (2,24 t/ha, - 22 %) a stronger reduction in comparison with the former satisfying year. While the international market estimations present for France still a high yield forecast from of 3,1 – 3,3 t/ha (3.22 according to MARS) the local mood was depressed as the French farmers lost already around 100.000 ha, mainly due to the problems in autumn respectively higher insect damages. A harvest acreage of below 1.0 Mill. Hectares in France were the lowest production area since 1997. Another country with problematic development was the United Kingdom as they suffered also from their conditions, mainly from the wet autumn and the high cabbage stem flea beetle damage. The final harvest acreage dropped down to a level of just 312.000 ha, less than the half compared with the acreage 2015, the first year without neonicotinoid seed treatment. Luckily the first yield figures were above the 2020 results with 3,3 – 3,5 t/ha.
See tables on Pdf File
Harvest 2021 in EU – overview of biggest rapeseed producing countries
The current rapeseed harvest 2020/2021 is estimated on a level of 17,03 Mill. tons by the international market experts of Strategy Grains. A figure, which is also confirmed by the last report from the USDA. The production surplus of 400.000 t/ha in comparison with 2020 are enjoyable but will not solve the tightness on the European rapeseed market.
See Table on Pdf File
The Top-5 rapeseed producers in the EU27 are Germany, France, Poland, Czech Republic and a surprisingly Romania. These countries produce together more than 70 % of the European Union. Based on a last update from OilWorld, Germany was able to reach again the leading position in the EU-27. The graph below also presents the critical development of France, where the rapeseed farmers suffered from the challenging conditions 3 years in a row. The estimation of 3.71Mill. tons for Germany respectively the 1.13 Mill. tons for Romania must be highlighted as new harvest updates speak already about a drop down for Germany (3.5 Mill. tons presented by DRV) and an increase for Romania (1.33 Mill. tons).
Russia emerges since a couple of years to a key rapeseed producer with stronger impact on the global supply, especially to China. The rapeseed season 2021 was a bigger challenge, as the growing conditions in autumn 2020 were not supportive. Based on high temperatures in summer 2020 sowing respectively emergence was not favourable. The consequence was that Russian rapeseed farmers lost more than 100.000 hectares over the winter months, mainly because of inhomogeneous development. According to OilWorld (update Dec 17, 2021), rapeseed yield would reach 1.76 t/ha for a total production of 2,88 MT. Additionally, Russia owns a growing spring rapeseed market with around 1.4 Mill. Hectares also here are the first yield figures promising. Further increase in the rapeseed acreage for 2022 can be expected.
Besides Canada, Ukraine is one of the main rapeseed suppliers for the European Union. Based on a growing demand Ukraine increased their acreage during the last years up to more than 1 Mill. hectares. Regarding UkrAgroConsult the acreage 2021 reached 1.05 Mill. hectares. Despite challenging weather conditions (cold prolonged spring, late ripening due stronger summer rainfalls) the delayed harvest reached quite high yield figures with 2,75 t/ha. The OilWord update mentions 1.080 Mha with an average yield of 2.8 t/ha and a total production ranging by 3.06 MT. It can be expected that based on the better production the Ukrainian exports to the European Union will surpass the 2. Mill. tons from last marketing year.
In Canada, the dramatic extent of the losses will be more understood if we keep in mind that the Canadian Canola farmers expanded their acreage (+ 8 % vs. 2020), due to a high global plant oil demand and low stocks.
Additionally, the current situation will be intensified through the fact that the production 2021 matches a low canola stock from previous harvest of just 0.7 Mill. tons due to a high export in the last marketing season. One year ago, the Canadian supply was more comfortable with ending stocks of 3.1 Mill. tons.
But what are the main reasons for this dramatic drop down in 2021? The current Canola production suffered from frost in late spring, a higher insect pest appearance and the fatal heat wave in July with temperatures up to 50°C. The situation in Saskatchewan, as largest Canola producer in Canada, confirms the dramatic development during July. It suffered a lot from this heat, as 50 % of Canola fields were in a poor or very poor condition. This is an incredible increase, if we compare this with the previous year, where just 3 % of the fields were in a critical stage.
Through October 2021, severe to extreme drought conditions continued across much of the Prairie region. Statistics Canada projects production decreases for grain and oilseed crops of between 35% and 46% compared to 2020 (Wheat 38,3%, canola 34,4%, barley 33,5%, peas 45%, oats 43,6%, lentils 37% and flax 34%).
According to Aston Chipanshi, AAFC, the 2021 drought is the most severe drought recorded in intensity an extent: drought covered 94% of the agriculture land in Western Canada. Extreme or exceptional drought covered over 28% of the area. Drought impacted 46 million acres of crop land. Precipitation in late August provided some relief and briefly improved soil moisture, but this precipitation was too late for most crops.
See Map on Pdf File
Drought conditions began in the summer of 2020 and intensified through the fall and winter. Lack of spring runoff resulted in early season water supply issues and inadequate soil moisture. Low precipitation combined with high temperatures resulted in high crop stress and reduced vegetation biomass.
Record temperatures in July, unprecedented in intensity and duration, amplified the impact of this drought. The hottest and driest portion of summer occurred during a critical agriculture period significantly lowering yield potential.
Indicators over multiple years show a dry trend across much of Western Canada. The severity of this year’s drought is the result of multiple dry years, cumulating with a very hot and dry 2021 summer. 2021 was the most severed and widespread drought in the last 50 years, with 1961, 1988, and 2001-2002. Yield reduction in 2021 were larger compared to the five-year average than seen in previous drought years, but overall yields remain higher relative to long term historical averages due to improvements in technology.
See figure on Pdf file
According to the Canadian Grain Commission survey, concerning quality, oil content is affected with only 42% oil in seeds (from 33,9 to 49,4) compared to 44,4 for 10-year average, and protein content is relatively high, with 23,6% (16,4 to 30,5) compared to 20,8 as 10-year average. Glucosinolates are near normal (11 micromol/g of seed, compared to 10 for 10-year average. And the chlorophyl content is at the lowest levels.
High Temperatures before flowering affects oil content, after flowering, the fatty acids composition. Alpha-linolnic and oleaic acid are at 8.8% and 64,2% respectively in the oil (9,4 and 63,1% resp for 10-year average): oleic at the highest and linolenic at low levels. Finally, most samples received meet grade 1 canola.
Finally, the 2021 Canadian canola production would reach around 12.8 to 13 MT in 2021, compared to 19.5 Mt in 2020, the lowest Canola harvest since 2012/2013, where Canada reached just 13.9 Mill. tons.
A lucky winner is Australia (see more details in next section)as they benefit from the global rapeseed rally and the regional favourable growing conditions. They have the chance to compensate the gap on the European rapeseed market, especially in the 2nd half of the marketing year 2021/2022. The more favourable weather conditions led to an optimistic canola production with up to 5.8 million. Tons with an average yield of 1.9 t/ha. Further updates could be expected till harvest starts in mid of autumn 2021.
Consequences for the market
The tight supply on the European rapeseed market and the production issues in Canada led to an unimaginable price rally during the last 12 months.
Based on a robust demand in Europe and not sufficient domestic productions, we can expect ongoing imports on a level of 6 Mill. tons (OilWorld calculate with 6.5 Mill. tons).
Connected to the already mentioned production issues in Canada, the supplies to the market will be tight. According to USDA oilseeds report (9 Dec 2021) “With beginning stocks already tight due to strong demand over the past few years, the smaller crop is suppressing available supplies for both crush and exports. However, due to strong Canadian crush margins, the disruption is disproportionately affecting rapeseed exports over crush. Through the first 3 months of the marketing year, crush is down 9 percent while exports are down by almost 50 percent.
See Figure on Pdf file
It can be expected that the local Canadian processors who invest to increase their crushing capacities (today 11MT/year) significantly by 2025, will secure their quantities to fulfil the strong demand from the market.
The EU rapeseed balance present with again decreasing opening stocks on a level of 0.94 Mill. tons a tight supply. It will remain exciting, if the European processor will be able to reach again a level of more than 22 Mill. tons, especially if the import quantity from Canada will not come. During the last year they benefit a lot from increasing prices on the global market for vegetable oils. OilWorld calculates EU27 imports at 5.45Mt in 2021/22 with substitutions from Australia notably and a reduction of crushing from 22.9 to 22 MT.
The global European commodity prices are still on an incredible rally, mainly due to a continuously strong demand. Since the first lockdown due to Covid-19 the prices increased by more than 200 €/ton. The key factors were already mentioned above: productions issues in Canada, average production in the EU27 and low stocks everywhere due to a high demand in the EU respectively China. Consequently, the European commodity prices for rapeseed reached 577 €/ton by end of week 34 (+ 20 € during the week). In the same period the Canadian price jump on a level of 914 CAD, which is around 612 €/ton. At last Rapeseed prices on the European futures market Euronext, reached 769€/t at the end of December and overpassed 800€/ton early January 2022 never seen until now, with a high volatility of prices.
Futures market Euronext. Graines de colza: rapeseed / Blé: wheat / ratio= rapeseed price/ wheat price. See figure on Pdf File.
Price of rapeseed meal, rapeseed oil and ratio meal/oil. Tourteau = meal; huile = oil). See figure on Pdf File.
As global rapeseed Canola supply continues to worsen in the coming months because of production issues in Canada or low stocks in EU27 and Canada, further impacts will be visible on the feed market. The supply with rapeseed meal remains tight and with prices between 300 and 320 €/ton for non-GMO rapeseed meal around 30 % higher than one year ago. The uncertain final supply of Canola from Canada will reduce a stronger offer of further rapeseed meal, especially for the end of the year. The consequence is already visible for European animal owners: higher costs and less margin.
R. Brand/NPZ, E. Pilorgé/Terres Inovia-GCIRC; Elements on Canada situation from presentations during the Canola Week 2021 by Aston Chipanshi, AAFC, and Véronique Barthet/ Canadian Grain Commission
2021 Rapeseed harvest: Australia
In Australia, harvesting time takes place in December-January.
Firm canola prices at the start of the season triggered a near 30% increase in area sown. Decisions made by growers based on market signals back in March-April have paid off handsomely, despite pockets of disappointment from frosts and waterlogging. Seasonal rainfall for most canola growing regions was average or above average, except for South Australia which had a very dry start to the season, with only the last few months experiencing average rainfall.
NSW experienced another near-perfect season, with good sub soil moisture enabling an early start to the season in many districts. The cooler, moist conditions towards the season’s end, with no temperature spikes, hot winds or frosts will help to deliver a very strong crop with good oil levels. Generous use of fungicides has mitigated the risk of the impact of later blackleg or sclerotinia infections, particularly after the incidence of relatively widespread blackleg leaf infections early in the season. The incidence of insect pests has been low. Victoria has experienced similar season to NSW, including isolated instances of water logging. As with NSW, yield estimates are expected to be slightly behind that of last year, as the impact of a drier start and patchy establishment come to the fore. South Australia had a slow start to the season as a result of very dry conditions, although average conditions towards the end of the season will help bring through those well-established crops to an acceptable finish. As with Victoria, crops in the Mallee suffered from a lack of moisture throughout the season.
Pest and disease pressure has been low. Dry conditions at the start of the season kept weed pressure low. Western Australia had a good start to the season, and conditions didn’t waver throughout the season with average to above average rainfall being experienced in most growing areas.
The crop production estimates, however, were soon made out of date as the season continued to improve right up to harvest (in November), with the better estimate in the next table (January estimates)
See Map and Table on Pdf File.
This is certainly a record crop for Australia – the previous record set just the previous year at 4.6 million tonnes.
Some news from Reuters dated Dec 15, 2021 reports that “the rapeseed output in India is likely to rise as much as 29.4% this year as farmers plant more area with the winter-sown oilseed” Favourable weather conditions and higher prices encouraged farmers to bring more areas under rapeseed. The production would reach 10 to 11 million tons in the crop year to June 2022, compared to 8,5 Mt in 2020-21 crop year, according to the Central Organization for Oil Industry and Trade (COOIT). (https://www.reuters.com/world/india/rising-indian-rapeseed-output-could-reduce-vegoil-imports-2021-12-14/ )
According to USDA report dated September 1st 2021, “Rapeseed production is forecast up to 14 MMT in marketing year 21/22 compared to 13.5 MMT in MY 20/21. The increase reflects a slight expansion in acreage and higher yield due to generally good weather conditions. Industry sources indicate that rapeseed area has expanded moderately in the Yangtze River region, including Sichuan, Hubei, and Hunan, mainly driven by local demand for rapeseed oil and rising rapeseed prices in 2020. CNGOIC forecast for MY 21/22 rapeseed production is a record 14.5 MMT, up 2.8 percent from the previous year, based on good yield and planted area of 6.9 MHa, a 2.2 percent increase.
Regarding sowings for marketing year 21/22, rapeseed was planted in favorable weather conditions and grew with adequate rainfall and relatively higher temperature facilitating a good yield.
USA: Brassica carinata based biofuels (reported by Wilf Keller):
Researchers from the University of Georgia, USA, estimate that replacing petroleum-based aviation fuel with sustainable aviation fuel derived from Ethiopian mustard B. carinata, a type of mustard plant can reduce carbon emissions by up to 68%. The SPARC project, Southeast Partnership for Advanced Renewables from Carinata, is a $15 million project funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture, investigating how to grow carinata in the Southeast (grown as a winter crop), exploring questions related to optimum genetics and best practices for the highest crop and oil yield.
GCB Bioenergy journal published a special issue on B. carinata crop and biofuels including articles on economic and environmental interest of these biofuels, investments need, crop modelling, crop agronomy, physiology and protection, fertilization, crop insertion in local rotations and valorization of co-products.
The online event was very good, with 640 participants. All sessions were very well attended on many subjects: crop and research updates, challenges and opportunities, harvest and storage, innovation strategy phenotyping, molecular technologies, new breeding strategies, use of proteins for biopolymers, oil, and brain health aspects, etc… All themes that need to be continued in the future.
A very complete session was devoted to harvesting techniques: proper use of dessicants and straight cut compared to swathing without harvest aid, safe storage management.
Within the numerous sessions and very rich contents, we choose to highlight 2 topics:
Biodiesel development in Northern America and canola production:
The development of biodiesel in Canada and US is expected to grow in a very significant way, in such a way that the demand for canola seeds would increase from 1,8 MT today to 3,9 MT in 2025 and 5 MT in 2030 in a medium demand scenario, that could range from 2,8 and 5.0 in 2025 for a low demand scenario to 4,7 to 9,4 in 2030 for a high demand scenario. This perspective of a strong demand of canola on long-term encouraging the crushing industry to invest in new capacities (4 new projects). For the production, yield remains the target number one to reach the 26MT production objective, as well as the critical challenge of climate change and Green House Gas emissions reduction, involving nitrogen management and carbon sequestration in soils (evaluated at 5MT yearly for Canadian canola).
Chris Vervet, director of the Canadian Oilseed Processors Association, gave some figures about the investments in crushing industry for the target crushing capacity of 16,7 MT in 2025 compared to 11MT in 2020 which corresponds to 57% of the total production, aligning with canola production goals to 26MT. This investment strategy is driven by the global demand for oil and meal, and the expanding biofuel demand with low carbon fuels standards and the Clean Fuel Regulation: for US and Canada, the biodiesel demand is expected to grow by 50% to 2030, from 10 to 15 billion litres yearly, and presently, Canada does not have existing capacities for renewable biodiesel production. Cassandra Cotton, from Fertilizer Canada observed that there is few room in Canada to cut fertilizer without impacts to yield, since the nitrogen use efficiency rating of about 70% is above the world average, and that consequently with reduced yields, and crushing capacity expansion, there will be virtually no export capacity for canola seeds.
A challenging crossroad situation. As Jim Everson, President of Canola Council, mentioned, sustainability is a journey and the crop itself is a solution: this time of disruption for the canola industry may also be a time of opportunities.
Human health and canola oil
The metabolism of the poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in human is still incompletely understood, and this is still field of active research and discoveries. Research in fatty acids metabolism is of utmost importance for the best valorisation of rapeseed/canola oil, the most available and cheapest source of alphalinolenic acid for human nutrition.
Richard Bazinet, professor in Brain Lipid Metabolism, Department of nutritional Sciences of the University of Toronto, gave an outstanding presentation on “Canola as major source of omega-3 fatty acids in the Canadian diet and brain”.
He started reminding that brain is only 2% of body weight but uses 20% of the body energy, up to 50% in infants, that its composition is half fat and half protein, and that this very active tissue cannot directly use lipids from the diet. 10 to 15% of fat in brain is DHA. The -difficult – analysis of brain showed that the brain contains about 4 grams of DHA at a given time, and that the uptake of DHA into the brain is only 4mg/day, much less than we were thinking.
The alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, present in canola oil) is a precursor of DHA. ALA is first converted to EPA and then to DHA. The part of conversion of ALA to EPA by the metabolism is still controversial, evaluated to 2%. But a diet including 2g/day ALA with a conversion ratio of 1% makes 20 mg. There is a metabolic competition with omega-6 fatty acids for the conversion of ALA to EPA, hence the nutritional recommendation of 6 omega-6 to 1 omega-3 in diet. EPA is present in fish and an easy conclusion would be eat fish, but dietary recommendations for the use of fish oils faces a sustainability issue with the erosion of marine resources.
R. Bazinet went on commenting the interest of different methodologies: observational studies of cohorts, which are relatively easy but cannot demonstrate causation and may be subject to bias due to food habits. An example was given with a review of studies on the protective effect of n-3 fatty acids on Alzheimer disease showing 10 cases of beneficial effects, 2 null and 1 harmful. Randomized controlled trials are a gold standard but two main issues are the definition of a placebo in a nutrition study and the interpretation regarding improving brain function versus slowing the decline is difficult. Publications show that the ALA supplementation increases EPA levels, but ALA or EPA supplementation does not increase plasma DHA levels and that make people think that EPA like ALA does not convert to DHA.
See Tables on Pdf File.
A study by R. Bazinet and team of the University of Guelph a randomized controlled trial with 89 subjects using isotope-labelled acids revealed no retroconversion of DHA to EPA but a substantial conversion of EPA to DHA following the diet supplementation. Subjects were divided in 3 groups supplemented with olive oil (control), EPA or DHA. The Olive oil control shows no effect on EPA and DHA concentration in plasma or 13C-n-3 PUFA abundance. At the opposite, the EPA supplementation (3g/day pure EPA) does not change the DHA concentration in plasma but increases the 13C-DHA signature, meaning that there is a rapid flux from EPA to DHA.
See Figures on Pdf File
“These new findings suggest that: 1) there is substantial synthesis of DHA from EPA in humans, and 2) the increases in EPA upon DHA feeding are the result of slowed EPA metabolism, and not retroconversion of DHA. Determining δ13C of n–3 PUFA in humans is a remarkably powerful tool that can not only track dietary intake patterns but can also provide novel insights into complex metabolic questions.” (1).
This better understanding of PUFA metabolism confirm the interest of alphalinolenic acid in diets.
Metherel, A. H., Irfan, M., Klingel, S. L., Mutch, D. M., & Bazinet, R. P. (2019). Compound-specific isotope analysis reveals no retroconversion of DHA to EPA but substantial conversion of EPA to DHA following supplementation: a randomized control trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 110(4), 823-831. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz097
Metherel, A. H., & Bazinet, R. P. (2019). Updates to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis pathway: DHA synthesis rates, tetracosahexaenoic acid and (minimal) retroconversion. Progress in lipid research, 76, 101008.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2019.101008
Domenichiello, A. F., Kitson, A. P., & Bazinet, R. P. (2015). Is docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from α-linolenic acid sufficient to supply the adult brain?. Progress in lipid research, 59, 54-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2015.04.002
European Union: European Commission Publishes Roadmap on Legislative Ini-tiative for Plants Produced by Certain Genome Editing Techniques
On September 24th, 2021, the European Commission published its roadmap to develop a legislative initiative for plants produced by certain genome editing techniques. This initiative will propose a legal framework for plants obtained by targeted mutagenesis and cisgenesis and for their food and feed products. The policy roadmap is based on the findings of a Commission study on new genomic techniques, which was published on April 29th, 2021. The publication of the roadmap is a first step in the legislative process. It began with a 4-week consultation period to provide feedback, which ended on October 22nd, 2021. A more comprehensive public consultation process will take place in 2022.
Source USDA GAIN reports Oct 6, 2021
For the Attention of the authors: we identify publications through research with 2 key words only: “rapeseed” and “canola”.
If a publication does not contain one of these two words, but for example only Brassica napus or terms implicitly linked to rapeseed/canola (for example names of diseases or insects or genes, etc.…), it will not be detected.
GENETICS & BREEDING
Gao, P., Quilichini, T. D., Yang, H., Li, Q., Nilsen, K. T., Qin, L., ... & Xiang, D. Evolutionary divergence in embryo and seed coat development of U’s Triangle Brassica species illustrated by a spatiotemporal transcriptome atlas. New Phytologist. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17759
Katche, E. I., Schierholt, A., Schiessl, S. V., Lv, Z., Batley, J., Becker, H. C., & Mason, A. S. (2021). Genetic factors inherited from both diploid parents interact to affect genome stability and fertility in resynthesized allotetraploid B. napus. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-552972/v1
Hu, D., Jing, J., Snowdon, R. J., Mason, A. S., Shen, J., Meng, J., & Zou, J. (2021). Exploring the gene pool of Brassica napus by genomics‐based approaches. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 19(9), 1693. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fpbi.13636
Hou, J., Lu, D., Mason, A. S., Li, B., An, S., Li, G., & Cai, D. (2021). Distribution of MITE family Monkey King in rapeseed (Brassica napus L) and its influence on gene expression. Genomics, 113(5), 2934-2943. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.06.034
Tan, Z., Xie, Z., Dai, L., Zhang, Y., Zhao, H., Tang, S., ... & Hong, D. (2021). Genome‐and transcriptome‐wide association studies reveal the genetic basis and the breeding history of seed glucosinolate content in Brassica napus. Plant Biotechnology Journal. https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13707
Pal, L., Sandhu, S.K., Bhatia, D. et al. Genome-wide association study for candidate genes controlling seed yield and its components in rapeseed (Brassica napus subsp. napus). Physiol Mol Biol Plants 27, 1933–1951 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-021-01060-9
Zhou, T., Yue, C. P., Liu, Y., Zhang, T. Y., Huang, J. Y., & Hua, Y. P. (2021). Multiomics reveals pivotal roles of Na+ translocation and compartmentation in regulating salinity resistance in allotetraploid rapeseed. Journal of Experimental Botany. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab215
Mohamed, I. A., Shalby, N., El-Badri, A. M., Batool, M., Wang, C., Wang, Z., ... & Zhou, G. (2022). RNA-seq analysis revealed key genes associated with salt tolerance in rapeseed germination through carbohydrate metabolism, hormone, and MAPK signaling pathways. Industrial Crops and Products, 176, 114262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2021.114262
Ma, L., Bai, J., Xu, J., Qi, W., Li, H., Fang, Y., ... & Wu, J. (2021). Identification of proteins involved in response to cold stress and genome-wide identification and analysis of the APX gene family in winter rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.).https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-538668/v1
Li, J., Duan, Y., Sun, N., Wang, L., Feng, S., Fang, Y., & Wang, Y. (2021). The miR169n-NF-YA8 regulation module involved in drought resistance in Brassica napus L. Plant Science, 313, 111062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2021.111062
Wen, Y., Raza, A., Chu, W., Zou, X., Cheng, H., Hu, Q., ... & Wei, W. (2021). Comprehensive In Silico Characterization and Expression Profiling of TCP Gene Family in Rapeseed. Front. Genet. 12: 794297. doi: 10.3389/fgene. 2021.794297. Frontiers in Genetics| www. frontiersin. org, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.794297
Pi, B., Pan, J., Xiao, M. et al. Systematic analysis of CCCH zinc finger family in Brassica napus showed that BnRR-TZFs are involved in stress resistance. BMC Plant Biol 21, 555 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03340-8
Sobhanverdi, S., Majidi, A., Abbasi, A., Mollabashi, Z. A., Sabokdast, M., Bayat, H., & Niaraki, M. S. (2021). Constitutive Overexpressing At. TC Improves Drought-mediated Oxidative Tolerance in Transgenic Brassica Napus L.https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-751269/v1
Williams, S. T., Vail, S., & Arcand, M. M. (2021). Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Parent vs. Hybrid Canola under Varying Nitrogen Availabilities. Plants, 10(11), 2364. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112364
Wang, Y., Hua, Y. P., Zhou, T., Huang, J. Y., & Yue, C. P. (2021). Genomic identification of nitrogen assimilation-related genes and transcriptional characterization of their responses to nitrogen in allotetraploid rapeseed. Molecular Biology Reports, 48(8), 5977-5992. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06599-0
He, X., Zhang, H., Ye, X., Hong, J., & Ding, G. (2021). Nitrogen Assimilation Related Genes in Brassicanapus: Systematic Characterization and Expression Analysis Identified Hub Genes in Multiple Nutrient Stress Responses. Plants, 10(10), 2160. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102160
Wang, Y., Zhao, Z., Wang, S., Shi, L., & Xu, F. (2021). Genotypic differences in the synergistic effect of nitrogen and boron on the seed yield and nitrogen use efficiency of Brassica napus. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11700
Zheng, L. W., Ma, S. J., Zhou, T., Yue, C. P., Hua, Y. P., & Huang, J. Y. (2021). Genome-wide identification of Brassicaceae B-BOX genes and molecular characterization of their transcriptional responses to various nutrient stresses in allotetraploid rapeseed. BMC plant biology, 21(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03043-0
Liu Y, Hua Y, Chen H, Zhou T, Yue C, Huang J. 2021. Genome-scale identification of plant defensin (PDF) family genes and molecular characterization of their responses to diverse nutrient stresses in allotetraploid rapeseed. PeerJ 9:e12007 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.12007
He, M., Wang, S., Zhang, C., Liu, L., Zhang, J., Qiu, S., ... & Xu, F. (2021). Genetic variation of BnaA3. NIP5; 1 expressing in the lateral root cap contributes to boron deficiency tolerance in Brassica napus. PLoS genetics, 17(7), e1009661. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009661
Zhou, T., Yue, Cp., Zhang, Ty. et al. Integrated ionomic and transcriptomic dissection reveals the core transporter genes responsive to varying cadmium abundances in allotetraploid rapeseed. BMC Plant Biol 21, 372 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03136-w
Chen, J., Zhang, H., Tong, J. et al. Genome-wide association analysis of root length traits in Brassica napus at germination stage under sodium carbonate stress. Euphytica 217, 197 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-021-02928-3
Wang, W., Pang, J., Zhang, F., Sun, L., Yang, L., Zhao, Y., ... & Siddique, K. H. (2021). Integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis to characterize alkali stress responses in canola (Brassica napus L.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.06.021
Ibrahim, S., Li, K., Ahmad, N., Kuang, L., Sadau, S. B., Tian, Z., ... & Wang, H. (2021). Genetic Dissection of Mature Root Characteristics by Genome-Wide Association Studies in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Plants, 10(12), 2569.https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122569
Jin, Q., Yin, S., Li, G., Guo, T., Wan, M., Li, H., ... & Zhou, G. (2021). Functional homoeologous alleles of CONSTANS contribute to seasonal crop type in rapeseed. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 134(10), 3287-3303. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03896-x
Gill, K. (2021). Evaluation of oilseed Brassica napus germplasm for days to flowering under a short-day condition and QTL mapping of the trait. https://doi.org/10.7939/r3-3pdv-0e80
Huang, L., Min, Y., Schiessl, S., Xiong, X., Jan, H. U., He, X., Qian W., Guan C., Snowdon R., Hua W. & Qian, L. (2021). Integrative analysis of GWAS and transcriptome to reveal novel loci regulation flowering time in semi-winter rapeseed. Plant Science, 110980. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2021.110980
Ahmar, S., Zhai, Y., Huang, H., Yu, K., Khan, M. H. U., Shahid, M., ... & Zhou, Y. (2021). Development of mutants with varying flowering times by targeted editing of multiple SVP gene copies in Brassica napus L. The Crop Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2021.03.023
Helal, M. M. U., Gill, R. A., Tang, M., Yang, L., Hu, M., Yang, L., ... & Liu, S. (2021). SNP-and Haplotype-Based GWAS of Flowering-Related Traits in Brassica napus. Plants, 10(11), 2475. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112475
Chai, L., Zhang, J., Li, H., Cui, C., Jiang, J., Zheng, B., ... & Jiang, L. (2021). Investigation of thermomorphogenesis-related genes for a multi-silique trait in Brassica napus by comparative transcriptome analysis. Frontiers in genetics, 12, 1239. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.678804
Zhao, J., Jin, C., Geng, R., Xue, Y., Tang, M., Zhu, K., ... & Tan, X. (2021). Development and application of molecular markers for TSW (thousand-seed weight) related gene BnaGRF7. C02 in Brassica napus. Oil Crop Science, 6(3), 145-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocsci.2021.07.003
Xin, S., Dong, H., Yang, L., Huang, D., Zheng, F., Cui, Y., ... & Qian, W. (2021). Both overlapping and independent loci underlie seed number per pod and seed weight in Brassica napus by comparative quantitative trait loci analysis. Molecular Breeding, 41(7), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11032-021-01232-1
ZHU, M. C., Ran, H. U., ZHAO, H. Y., TANG, Y. S., SHI, X. T., JIANG, H. Y., ... & QU, C. M. (2021). Identification of quantitative trait loci and candidate genes controlling seed pigments of rapeseed. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(11), 2862-2879. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63377-9
Zhou, X., Zhang, H., Wang, P., Liu, Y., Zhang, X., Song, Y., ... & Hong, D. (2021). BnaC7. ROT3, the causal gene of cqSL-C7, mediates silique length by affecting cell elongation in Brassica napus. Journal of Experimental Botany. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab407
Wang, J., Fan, Y., Mao, L. et al. Genome-wide association study and transcriptome analysis dissect the genetic control of silique length in Brassica napus L.. Biotechnol Biofuels 14, 214 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186
Afridi, M., Ahmad, K., Malik, S. S., Rehman, N., Yasin, M., Yasin, M. T., ... & Khan, M. R. (2021). Genome Wide Identification, Phylogeny and Expression Profiling Analysis of Shattering genes in Rapeseed and Mustard Plants. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-631553/v1
Chu, W., Liu, J., Cheng, H., Li, C., Fu, L., Wang, W., ... & Hu, Q. (2021). A lignified-layer bridge controlled by a single recessive gene is associated with high pod-shatter resistancein Brassica napus L. The Crop Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2021.09.005
Xia, J., Wang, D., Peng, Y., Wang, W., Wang, Q., Xu, Y., ... & Xu, X. (2021). Genome-Wide Analysis of the YABBY Transcription Factor Family in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Genes, 12(7), 981. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12070981
Widiarsih, S., Nagel, M., Börner, A., Feussner, K., Feussner, I., & Möllers, C. (2021). Inheritance of seed quality and seed germination in two doubled haploid populations of oilseed rape segregating for acid detergent lignin (ADL) content. Euphytica, 217(8), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-021-02891-z
Yu, K., He, Y., Li, Y., Li, Z., Zhang, J., Wang, X., & Tian, E. (2021). Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Combined with RNA Sequencing Reveals the Molecular Basis of Seed Germination in Oilseed Rape. Biomolecules, 11(12), 1780. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11121780
Yang, Q., Wang, S., Chen, H., You, L., Liu, F., & Liu, Z. (2021). Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the COBRA-like genes reveal likely roles in stem strength in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). PloS one, 16(11), e0260268. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0260268
Fan, S., Zhang, L., Tang, M., Cai, Y., Liu, J., Liu, H., ... & Zheng, M. (2021). CRISPR/Cas9‐targeted mutagenesis of the BnaA03. BP gene confers semi‐dwarf and compact architecture to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Plant Biotechnology Journal. https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13703
Das, G.G., Malek, M.A., Shamsuddin, A.K.M. et al. Development of high yielding early matured and shattering tolerant Brassica napus L. through interspecific hybridization between B. rapa L. and B. oleracea L.. Genet Resour Crop Evol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-021-01277-3
Xu, P., Zhu, Y., Zhang, Y., Jiang, J., Yang, L., Mu, J., ... & He, Y. (2021). Global Analysis of the Genetic Variations in miRNA-Targeted Sites and Their Correlations With Agronomic Traits in Rapeseed. Frontiers in genetics, 12. https://dx.doi.org/10.3389%2Ffgene.2021.741858
Raboanatahiry, N., Chao, H., He, J., Li, H., & Li, M. (2021). Construction of a Quantitative Genomic Map Gives Insight on Rapeseed Genetic Characteristics and Direction for Future Breeding. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-729050/v1
Zhang, H., Li, X., Yang, Y., Hu, K., Zhou, X., Wen, J., ... & Tu, J. (2021). BnaA02. YTG1, encoding a tetratricopeptide repeat protein, is required for early chloroplast biogenesis in Brassica napus. The Crop Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2021.06.010
Khan, S.U.; Saeed, S.; Khan, M.H.U.; Fan, C.; Ahmar, S.; Arriagada, O.; Shahzad, R.; Branca, F.; Mora-Poblete, F. Advances and Challenges for QTL Analysis and GWAS in the Plant-Breeding of High-Yielding: A Focus on Rapeseed. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 1516. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11101516
Yin, N., Li, B., Liu, X., Liang, Y., Lian, J., Xue, Y., ... & Chai, Y. (2021). Two types of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase function divergently in accumulation of lignins, flavonoids and glucosinolates and enhance lodging resistance in Brassica napus. The Crop Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2021.10.002
Urban, M. O., Planchon, S., Hoštičková, I., Vankova, R., Dobrev, P., Renaut, J., ... & Vítámvás, P. (2021). The resistance of oilseed rape microspore-derived embryos to osmotic stress is associated with the accumulation of energy metabolism proteins, redox homeostasis and higher abscisic acid and cytokinin contents. Frontiers in plant science, 12, 1161. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.628167
Zhang, X., Lian, J., Dai, C., Wang, X., Zhang, M., Su, X., ... & Yu, C. (2021). Genetic segregation analysis of unsaturated fatty acids content in the filial generations of high-linolenic-acid rapeseed (Brassica napus). Oil Crop Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocsci.2021.10.001
Yan, G., Yu, P., Tian, X., Guo, L., Tu, J., Shen, J., ... & Dai, C. (2021). DELLA Proteins BnaA6. RGA and BnaC7. RGA negatively regulate fatty acid biosynthesis by interacting with BnaLEC1s in Brassica napus. Plant Biotechnology Journal. https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13628Ding, Y., Yu, S., Wang, J. et al. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of seed coats with high and low lignin contents reveals lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis in Brassica napus. BMC Plant Biol 21, 246 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03030-5
Su, W., Raza, A., Zeng, L., Gao, A., Lv, Y., Ding, X., ... & Zou, X. (2021). Genome-wide analysis and expression patterns of lipid phospholipid phospholipase gene family in Brassica napus L. BMC genomics, 22(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07862-1
Wu, X., Chen, F., Zhao, X., Pang, C., Shi, R., Liu, C., ... & Zhang, J. (2021). QTL Mapping and GWAS Reveal the Genetic Mechanism Controlling Soluble Solids Content in Brassica napus Shoots. Foods, 10(10), 2400. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102400
Rahman, M., Guo, Q., Baten, A., Mauleon, R., Khatun, A., Liu, L., & Barkla, B. J. (2021). Shotgun proteomics of Brassica rapa seed proteins identifies vicilin as a major seed storage protein in the mature seed. PloS one, 16(7), e0253384. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253384
Gacek, K., Bayer, P. E., Anderson, R., Severn-Ellis, A. A., Wolko, J., Łopatyńska, A., ... & Batley, J. (2021). QTL Genetic Mapping Study for Traits Affecting Meal Quality in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica Napus L.). Genes, 12(8), 1235. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12081235
Kang, Y., Liu, W., Guan, C., Guan, M., & He, X. (2021). Evolution and functional diversity of lipoxygenase (LOX) genes in allotetraploid rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 188, 844-854. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.08.082
Cui, X., Zhao, P., Li, Y., Xie, L., Li, Q., Yan, J., ... & Jiang, Y. Q. (2021). Rapeseed NAC46 positively regulates hypersensitive response-like cell death and chlorophyll degradation. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 104536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2021.104536
Zhang, X., Cheng, J., Lin, Y., Fu, Y., Xie, J., Li, B., ... & Jiang, D. (2021). Editing homologous copies of an essential gene affords crop resistance against two cosmopolitan necrotrophic pathogens. Plant biotechnology journal, 19(11), 2349. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fpbi.13667
Zhongwei Zou, Fei Liu, Shuanglong Huang, W.G.D. Fernando. 2020. Genome Wide Identification and Analysis of VQ Motif-containing Family in Brassica napus and Functional Characterization of BnMKS1 in Response to Leptosphaeria maculans. Phytopathology. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-04-20-0134-R
Mansouripour, S., Oladzad, A., Shahoveisi, F. et al. Identification of genomic regions associated with resistance to blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) in canola using genome wide association study. Eur J Plant Pathol 161, 693–707 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-021-02354-0
Degrave, A., Wagner, M., George, P., Coudard, L., Pinochet, X., Ermel, M., ... & Balesdent, M. H. (2021). A new avirulence gene of Leptosphaeria maculans, AvrLm14, identifies a resistance source in American broccoli (Brassica oleracea) genotypes. Molecular Plant Pathology, 22(12), 1599-1612. https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13131
Dandena, H. B. (2021). Genetic and genomic studies towards understanding quantitative resistance to blackleg infection in canola. http://hdl.handle.net/1993/36006
Roy, J., Shaikh, T. M., Luis, E., Hosain, S., Chapara, V., & Rahman, M. (2021). Genome-Wide Association Mapping and Genomic Prediction for Adult Stage Sclerotinia Stem Rot Resistance in Brassica Napus (L) Under Field Environments. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-589440/v1
Khan, M. A., Cowling, W., Banga, S. S., You, M. P., Tyagi, V., Bharti, B., & Barbetti, M. J. (2021). Quantitative inheritance of Sclerotinia stem rot resistance in Brassica napus and relationship to cotyledon and leaf resistances. Plant Disease, (ja). https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-21-0885-RE
Kawasaki, M., Ohara, T., Ishida, M., Takahata, Y., & Hatakeyama, K. (2021). Development of novel clubroot resistant rapeseed lines (Brassica napus L.) effective against Japanese field isolates by marker assisted selection. Breeding Science, 21014. https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.21014
Hasan, J., Shaikh, R., Megha, S., Herrmann, D. T., Kebede, B., & Rahman, H. (2021). Mapping of flowering time, seed quality and clubroot resistance in rutabaga× spring canola populations and their association. Euphytica, 217(8), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-021-02889-7
Hasan, M. J., Shaikh, R., Basu, U., & Rahman, H. (2021). Mapping clubroot resistance of Brassica rapa introgressed into Brassica napus and development of molecular markers for the resistance. Crop Science, 61(6), 4112-4127. https://doi.org/10.1002/csc2.20626
Yu, H., Zhou, Q., Hwang, S. F., Ho, A., Chang, K. F., Strelkov, S. E., ... & Harding, M. (2021). Pathogenicity, anastomosis groups, host range and genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia species isolated from soybean, pea and other crops in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, (ja). https://doi.org/10.1139/CJPS-2021-0039
Agrawal, N., Gupta, M., Atri, C. et al. Anchoring alien chromosome segment substitutions bearing gene(s) for resistance to mustard aphid in Brassica juncea-B. fruticulosa introgression lines and their possible disruption through gamma irradiation. Theor Appl Genet 134, 3209–3224 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03886-z
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Guo, Y., Liu, C., Long, W., Gao, J., Zhang, J., Chen, S., ... & Hu, M. (2021). Development and molecular analysis of a novel acetohydroxyacid synthase rapeseed mutant with high resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides. The Crop Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2021.05.006
Roeintan, A., Safavi, S.M. & Kahrizi, D. Rapeseed Transformation with aroA Bacterial Gene Containing P101S Mutation Confers Glyphosate Resistance. Biochem Genet (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10528-021-10136-w
Zhu, J., Zhang, J., Jiang, M., Wang, W., Jiang, J., Li, Y., ... & Zhou, X. (2021). Development of genome-wide SSR markers in rapeseed by next generation sequencing. Gene, 798, 145798. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145798
Corral-Martínez P., Camacho-Fernández C., Mir R., Seguí-Simarro J.M. (2021) Doubled Haploid Production in High- and Low-Response Genotypes of Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Through Isolated Microspore Culture. In: Segui-Simarro J.M. (eds) Doubled Haploid Technology. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 2288. Humana, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1335-1_8
Karunarathna, N. L., Patiranage, D. S., Harloff, H. J., Sashidhar, N., & Jung, C. (2021). Genomic background selection to reduce the mutation load after random mutagenesis. Scientific reports, 11(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-98934-5
Wang, Q., Yan, T., Long, Z., Huang, L. Y., Zhu, Y., Xu, Y., ... & Jiang, L. (2021). Prediction of heterosis in the recent rapeseed (Brassica napus) polyploid by pairing parental nucleotide sequences. PLoS genetics, 17(11), e1009879. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009879
Wang, T., Li, B., Guo, Y., Zhang, Y., Liu, X., Fan, L., ... & Li, M. (2021). Development of SSR Markers Associated with Polima CMS Fertility Restorer in Brassica napusL. and Its Application. Molecular Plant Breeding, 12. https://doi.org/10.5376/mpb.2021.12.0017
Sidorov, V., Wang, D., Nagy, E.D. et al. Heritable DNA-free genome editing of canola (Brassica napus L.) using PEG-mediated transfection of isolated protoplasts. In Vitro Cell.Dev.Biol.-Plant (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11627-021-10236-7
Strelnikov, E. A., Bochkarova, E. B., Gorlova, L. A., & Serdyuk, V. V. (2021). Estimation of adaptability of the maternal lines of the winter rapeseed hybrids bred at the VS Pustovoit All-Russian Research Institute of oil crops in the central zone of the krasnodar region, Russia. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19(4), 765-769. https://dx.doi.org/10.22124/cjes.2021.5157
Stamm, M., Aiken, R., Angadi, S., Damicone, J., Dooley, S., Holman, J., ... & Santra, D. (2021). Registration of ‘KS4719’winter canola. Journal of Plant Registrations. https://doi.org/10.1002/plr2.20177
Yin, L., Zhu, Z., Huang, L., Luo, X., Li, Y., Xiao, C., ... & Fu, S. (2021). DNA repair-and nucleotide metabolism-related genes exhibit differential CHG methylation patterns in natural and synthetic polyploids (Brassica napus L.). Horticulture research, 8(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00576-1
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Liang Chai, Jinfang Zhang, Wannakuwattewaduge Gerard Dilantha Fernando, Haojie Li, Xiaoqin Huang, Cheng Cui, Jun Jiang, Benchuan Zheng, Yong Liu, and Liangcai Jiang. Detection of Blackleg Resistance Gene Rlm1 in Double-Low Rapeseed Accessions from Sichuan Province, by Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR. Plant Pathol. J. 37(2) : 194-199 (2021) https://doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.10.2020.0204.
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Kuai, J., Li, X., Ji, J., Li, Z., Xie, Y., Wang, B., & Zhou, G. (2021). The physiological and proteomic characteristics of oilseed rape stem affect seed yield and lodging resistance under different planting densities and row spacing. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 207(5), 840-856. https://doi.org/10.1111/jac.12544
Maruyama-Nakashita, A., Ishibashi, Y., Yamamoto, K., Zhang, L., Morikawa-Ichinose, T., Kim, S. J., & Hayashi, N. (2021). Oxygen plasma modulates glucosinolate levels without affecting lipid contents and composition in Brassica napus seeds. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 85(12), 2434-2441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bbb/zbab157
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Chen, S., Stefanova, K., Siddique, K.H.M. and W.A. Cowling. 2021. Transient daily heat stress during the early reproductive phase disrupts pod and seed development in Brassica napus L. Food and Energy Security 10:e262 https://doi.org/10.1002/fes3.262
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QUALITY & PRODUCTS
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Russo, M., Yan, F., Stier, A., Klasen, L., & Honermeier, B. (2021). Erucic acid concentration of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) oils on the German food retail market. Food Science & Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2327
Martin, A., Naumann, S., Osen, R., Karbstein, H. P., & Emin, M. A. (2021). Extrusion Processing of Rapeseed Press Cake-Starch Blends: Effect of Starch Type and Treatment Temperature on Protein, Fiber and Starch Solubility. Foods, 10(6), 1160 https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061160
Nandasiri, H. M. A. R. (2021). Structural characterization of phenolic compounds in canola meal: impact of high pressure and temperature. http://hdl.handle.net/1993/36003
Moggré, G. J., Alayon Marichal, M., Sowersby, T., Grosvenor, A., Gathercole, J., & Moreno, T. (2021). Protein Recovery from New Zealand Oil Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Cake. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-021-01534-7
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Siebert, M., Krings, U., Günther, T., Fragalas, A., & Berger, R. G. (2021). Enzymatic hydrolysis of kaempferol 3‐O‐(2‴‐O‐sinapoyl‐β‐sophoroside), the key bitter compound of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) protein isolate. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11547
Rahman, M., Khatun, A., Liu, L., & Barkla, B. (2021). Identification of Allergenic Epitopes in the Sequences of Rapeseed Seed Proteins.(communication abstract) https://sciforum.net/paper/view/10220
Li, Y., Zhang, Z., Ren, W., Wang, Y., Mintah, B. K., Dabbour, M., ... & Ma, H. (2021). Inhibition effect of ultrasound on the formation of lysinoalanine in rapeseed protein isolates during pH shift treatment. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 69(30), 8536-8545. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c02422
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Watts, E. S., Rose, S. P., Mackenzie, A. M., & Pirgozliev, V. R. (2021). Investigations into the chemical composition and nutritional value of single-cultivar rapeseed meals for broiler chickens. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 1-13.https://doi.org/10.1080/1745039X.2021.1930455
Skvortsova L., Osepchuk D., Nepshekueva T. (2022) Efficiency of Using Rapeseed-Processing Wastes in Mixed Feed for Broiler Chickens. In: Muratov A., Ignateva S. (eds) Fundamental and Applied Scientific Research in the Development of Agriculture in the Far East (AFE-2021). AFE 2021. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, vol 354. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-91405-9_27
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Wu, Z., Chen, J., Pirzado, S. A., Haile, T. H., Cai, H., & Liu, G. The effect of fermented and raw rapeseed meal on the growth performance, immune status and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13593
Yadav, S., Teng, P. Y., Choi, J., Singh, A. K., Vaddu, S., Thippareddi, H., & Kim, W. K. (2021). Influence of rapeseed, canola meal and glucosinolate metabolite (AITC) as potential antimicrobials: Effects on growth performance, and gut health in Salmonella Typhimurium challenged broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 101551.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101551
Boroojeni, F. G., Männer, K., Boros, D., Wiśniewska, M., Kühnel, S., Beckmann, K., ... & Zentek, J. (2021). Spontaneous and enzymatic fermentation of rapeseed cake for broiler nutrition. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 115135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.115135
Yadav, S., Teng, P. Y., Singh, A. K., Choi, J., & Kim, W. K. (2021). Influence of Brassica spp. rapeseed and canola meal, and supplementation of bioactive compound (AITC) on growth performance, intestinal-permeability, oocyst shedding, lesion score, histomorphology, and gene expression of broilers challenged with E. maxima. Poultry Science, 101583. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101583
Olukomaiya, O. O. (2021). Utilization of solid-state fermented canola meal, camelina meal and lupin as potential protein sources in the diets of broiler chickens. REFERENCE
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Murillo, G., Horn, T., Johnson, W. D., & MacIntosh, S. (2021). 28-Day oral (gavage) and 13-week (dietary) toxicity studies of DHA canola oil and DHA canola meal in rats. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 127, 105050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2021.105050
Miklavčič Višnjevec, A., Tamayo Tenorio, A., Steenkjær Hastrup, A. C., Hansen, N. M. L., Peeters, K., & Schwarzkopf, M. (2021). Glucosinolates and Isothiocyantes in Processed Rapeseed Determined by HPLC-DAD-qTOF. Plants, 10(11), 2548. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112548
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