Global Council for Innovation in Rapeseed and Canola
NEWSLETTER 7, May 2020
Rapeseed – A major global oil and protein crop: today, in the near future and beyond.
Table of contents
Activity/ News of the association: GCIRC Board meeting… on line New GCIRC sponsor: NIAB GCIRC Website: New design and new functions! Collecting the 15th IRC presentations…
Value chains and regional news Crops Covid 19 Crisis Quality of harvest 2019 France: 26e Carrefour de la sélection du colza / 26th Seminar on Rapeseed Breeding. January 22-23, 2020
Scientific news Publications
Upcoming International and national events
Rapeseed – A major global oil and protein crop: today, in the near future and beyond.
Since the invention of low-erucic rapeseed (0 type) and the subsequent, additional development of very low glucosinolate type (canola, 00) the cultivation of oilseed rape/canola has continuously increased on a global scale. Major growing areas of today are Canada, China, Australia and Western Europe (e.g. France, Germany, Poland, and the UK): Today, thirteen countries have a rapeseed acreage of more than 300,000 ha, led by Canada with an annual canola area of 6 to 9 million ha depending on the annual weather conditions. Further major producers are China and India, the latter mainly growing rapeseed mustard rather than B. napus.. Conspicuous advances in rapeseed cultivation and production have re-cently been achieved in countries of the near and middle east such as Kazakhstan, Romania, and Russia. In particular, the Russian Federation has a very large potential for rapeseed cultivation, especially in extensive areas of Western Siberia, where large amounts of rapeseed may be harvested in the future despite the current low yield potential. Other regions with high potential are Ukraine, USA, and Aus-tralia, despite the strong dependence on annual precipitation in major growing areas of these coun-tries.
Besides climate, other constraints can severely limit rapeseed growing and yield. Major challenges of today are numerous insect pests such as cabbage stem flea beetle, rape stem weevil, pollen beetle, cabbage seed weevil, and brassica pod midge which – depending on the site and year – can cause severe or even complete loss of the crop. In addition, fungal diseases such as blackleg, clubroot, sclero-tinia and verticillium continue to damage rapeseed plants and fields. Whereas resistance breeding has led to some improvement by providing resistant or tolerant new cultivars, crop resistance against in-sects has not been successfully established and will probably do so for the years to come. Intensified future research activities in entomology and crop protection may help to overcome this unsatisfactory situation and improve the yield stability across environments i.e. locations and years.
In addition, the yield performance of rapeseed per se deserves substantial improvement. Intensifying research on yield physiology and broadening genetic diversity is seen as a helpful approach to higher yield of rapeseed varieties under challenging environments. Equally important, the international community in nutrition, both animal and human, will have to continue research for optimizing seed quality as a basis for optimal marketing and economical success of rapeseed production, not the least for the purpose of bioenergy creation and protect the environment.
This short description may point out the multitude of challenges rapeseed research, cultivation and use will be confronted in the near future. GCIRC, as a diverse international community for research on rapeseed, will be prepared to address these challenges.
Prof Wolfgang Friedt, GCIRC President
Activity/ News of the association:
GCIRC Board meeting...online
Fortunately, the International Rapeseed Congress and GCIRC General Assembly took place in 2019… Most international events and meetings have been cancelled or postponed this year due to the Covid 19 crisis. Nevertheless, the GCIRC board meeting scheduled on March 18 in Paris has been maintained through a video conference, just when Europe was closing everything. With good will of everybody (it was very late in Australia and China, and very soon in Canada), this experience was a success and proved, if needed, that international collaboration may profit a lot from the new communication technologies…
A part of the meeting has been devoted to the debriefing of the IRC15 experience, and several important issues have been treated, after the orientations given by the General Assembly in Berlin.
Among these issues, 3 are especially important for the coming year: - The next GCIRC Technical meeting is scheduled in Poznan, Poland, on May 17-20, 2021, hosted by the IHAR. Please keep the dates. - Two major topics will be in the foreground: insects pests management strategies, and rape-seed/canola proteins. - The practical refoundation of GCIRC scientific committees (Genetics and Breeding, Crop Protection, Agronomy and Crop Management, Quality and Products, Economy and Markets), in the perspective of sharing ideas and visions during the Technical Meeting.
Later on-line meetings have permitted to put the basis of an “Innovation and networking” group, and to pass detailed information on the Congress organization experience to the Australian team that will lead the IRC16, in 2023 in Sydney. Further details will be given soon.
New GCIRC sponsor: NIAB
UK participated actively in the foundation of GCIRC in the 1970’ies, but its participation has been weakening in the 2000’ds. Fortunately, Simon Kightley convinced NIAB to take over, coming back to the period when UK organized a very successful IRC in 1995 in Cambridge, under the presidency of John Mc Leod.
NIAB was founded in 1919 as the National Institute of Agricultural Botany, to promote the improve-ment of British crops and to assess the merits of varieties and seed quality. It is now a major interna-tional research organisation in plant science, crop evaluation and agronomy. See: https://www.niab.com/
After the support in 2019 of SPZO, Union of Oilseed growers and Processors of Czech Republic, and AOF Australian Oilseed Federation, our sponsors are now 7, showing the interest of national professional sectors and research and innovation institutions in the activities of GCIRC. Thanks to the efforts of the GCIRC board members. To better know them, you may pay a visit to their websites
GCIRC Website: New design and new functions!
The GCIRC launched its new website mid-March. Through this investment, the GCIRC wishes to go ensuring its traditional services of its website, to improve easiness and add new functionalities. The target is to favor easier interactions between the users of the website - GCIRC members… or not yet members- and GCIRC, and also between the members themselves. This new website will offer work-spaces for the GCIRC permanent thematic committees and for potential new thematic working groups. It also allows to directly modify one’s personal page and to pay membership online with a credit card secured system.
Member’s profile Now possible online modifications of your profile information: upload new cv, new photo, identification of your centers of interest, activity...
We advise GCIRC members to check and correct their profile and pay a special attention in expressing their fields of interest (several choices possible): it will favor easier interactions within the GCIRC community, notably to look for projects partners or organize working groups. The information that appear on one’s profile will be open to all, members, and non-members, except for the detailed CV that will be available only for members.
Online payment by credit card.
New members Now possible online registration: cv, photo, interests, activity... Online payment by credit card.
Workgroups/Collaborative activities New collaborative spaces available for our members to work on specific subjects.
Search box Improved research engine that searches in all site contents.
Our Newsletter You can register your e-mail address to receive our Newsletter. You can also read our Newsletter on-line or download the pdf file.
Our sponsors Sponsors' logos carrousel on our Home page.
REMINDERS: Publications In the Archives, open to all, you will find former GCIRC Bulletins and IRC Proceedings until 2015. GCIRC members have access to the latest IRC proceedings, Seminars/Symposia proceedings and Students thesis/reports and General Assemblies reports. Board members can read all our Board Meetings reports.
Online directory Members’ directory & Institutions and Companies’ directory You can search Members, Institutions and Companies by: Name, Countries, Main fields of interest, Main activity, or Type of Institution/Company. The lists of all GCIRC members and many Institutions and Companies are also available here.
Photo library More pictures now available. Do not hesitate to share yours so we can add them.
… Last but not least: we also need some pictures to illustrate rapeseed/canola in the different countries of the world, notably for the top parts of the website pages: this is a call for volunteers.
Collecting the 15th IRC presentations...
To the attention of the participants to the 15th IRC in Berlin, it is not too late to send us your presenta-tions or posters as pdf files. They will be published on the new GCIRC website, coming soon.
Value chains and regional news
The last report of Statistics Canada on principal field crop areas (Issued May 7; see https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/200507/dq200507a-eng.htm) mentions that “At the national level, farmers expect to seed fewer acres of canola in 2020 compared with one year earlier, decreasing 1.6% to 20.6 million acres in 2020 (8,33 Million ha). If realized, this would be the second consecutive year of decrease in canola seeded area at the national level and the lowest seeded area since 2013 as farmers shift away from oilseeds to other crops.”. Acreage would be down 2.3% from 2019 in Saskatchewan, 2.8% in Alberta and 3% in Manitoba.
In Europe, The European Commission estimates the rapeseed acreage to 5,3 million ha, up 2,7% com-pared to 2018/19, but still10% below the five-year acreage: as in 2018, the unfavorable weather con-ditions impeded rapeseed sowings in the autumn of 2019, especially in France, where some land had to be ploughed up.
These elements will impact international trade: rapeseed availability is expected to be very low next year in Europe. A significant import flow will certainly be necessary, first from Ukrainian rapeseed and then Canadian canola. In Ukraine, a drop in production is also expected and therefore a decrease in export capacities. Concerning Canada, exports to China restart, after being almost stopped since March 2019, more than 370,000 tons of canola were sent in March 2020. The sustained recovery in Chinese demand would be a positive factor for prices in the next season.
Covid 19 Crisis
Most sources of information report that concerning the agricultural sector, the main sources of uncer-tainties due to the coronavirus pandemic were logistics, and for some sectors (fruits and vegetable, labor availability). According to the EU Commission MARS Bulletin “While labour availability remains a key concern, to date we have no evidence of major COVID-19 driven impacts on the spring and summer crop sowings. The pandemic has also brought uncertainty and concerns about inputs (e.g. seeds, fertilizer, agro-chemicals) related to disruptions in logistics. So far, the supply of seed, fertilizer and pesticides seems to be adequate and no immediate disruptions are expected.”
The main disturbances on the European oilseeds market is linked to the drop of petroleum prices which directly impacted vegetable oils prices, and the drop of biodiesel demand which is a key outlet for rapeseed and impacts the supply of local proteins.
Quality of harvest 2019
NB: note that the results presented in the two studies in Canada and France are not expressed on the same basis of calculation.
Quality of western Canadian Canola - 2019
Weather and production review
In the prairies, seeding started early May and progressed steadily. By the end of May and the first week of June, it was completed in the three provinces. Cooler temperatures in May and June, associ-ated with a lack of moisture, led to a much-delayed canola seed germination. Finally, germination was patchy in many fields, leading to uneven fields.
Cooler than normal temperatures (average 2 to 3oC lower) persisted during summer for most of the three provinces. In general, crops were one two weeks behind for most of the growing season due to the delayed germination in the three provinces. In Manitoba, during June, days were quite warm with temperatures reaching over 30oC; however, nights were quite cool with overnight lows in the single digit range. After the spring drought, above normal precipitation was the norm for the summer months in the prairies. However, this precipitation was uneven. During most of the growing season, the reported main causes of crop damages were either localized flooding due too much moisture or lack of moisture and high winds and hail.
The 2019 canola harvest was one to two weeks behind when compared to previous years. In September, frequent rainfalls and cooler than normal temperatures delayed harvest greatly. By mid-September, barely 10% of the canola crop was harvested compared to over 40% at the same time last year. The first snowfall occurred in Alberta and part of Saskatchewan the last week of September, it was followed by a killer frost couples of days later. Mid-October, there was a significant snowfall in Mani-toba, stopping all harvest activities. By the end of October, in Manitoba, canola harvest was considered over, with about 90% of the canola crop harvested. By mid-November, Saskatchewan canola harvest was considered finished with 91% of the canola crop harvested. About 19% of the crop in the east-central region of the province was still in the fields. By the first week of December, the Alberta canola harvest was considered complete with only 84.5% harvested. A large percentage of the crops was still in the fields, including 34% and 20% of the seeded canola respectively in the Peace River and the North-East areas of the province.
As of January 2020, Statistics Canada reported that the estimated 2019 Canadian production was 18.649 million metric tonnes (MT), about 1.7 MT less than last year production and about 2.5 MT less than the record production observed in 2017 (21.328 MT), but similar to the 5-year average production (18.682 MT). Table 1 - Seeded area and production for western Canadian canola - see table on PDF file
Quality of the 2019 canola harvest
This report of quality data for the 2019 harvest is based on analyses of 2,320 individual canola samples. Composites of Canola, No.1 Canada from each crop district from each province were made using these samples. Specialty oil samples, such as high oleic acid, low linolenic acid, and high erucic acid, were excluded from this report. Crop district composites of Canola, No.1 Canada samples were prepared using 1,936 samples. All quality parameters are reported on 8.5% moisture basis, except chlorophyll which is as this.
In 2019, only 85.1% of the samples were graded Canola, No. 1 Canada, compared to 74.4% in 2018 and 87.3% for the 5-year average. Since 2009, this is the 4th lowest percent of samples graded Canola, No.1 Canada, the worst average was obtained last year (74.4%) followed by the 2011 average (75.3%) and the 2012 average (82.0%). The grade distribution of the 2019 canola crop varied greatly between provinces and between crop districts within a province. The main damages were distinctly green seed count (DGR) and admixture. Overall, ddistinctly green seeds (DGR) were 0.39% (0.36% in 2018) in Canola, No. 1 Canada, 3.13% (4.04% in 2018) in Canola, No. 2 Canada, 10.23% (12.01% in 2018) in Canola, No. 3 Canada and 8.52% (32.95% in 2018) in Sample.
The 2019 western Canadian canola (Canola, No.1 Canada) crop was characterized by an oil content average higher than what was observed for the 2018 crop (44.6% in 2019 versus 44.1% in 2018), and a lower protein content average (20.4% in 2019 versus 21.1% in 2018) (Table 2). Samples showing the highest oil content average were from Saskatchewan, while for the protein content, Manitoba showed a higher average than Alberta or Saskatchewan (Table 2).
The chlorophyll content average for Canola, No.1 Canada samples was higher in 2019 than in 2018 (12 versus 10 mg/kg, respectively). Chlorophyll content average (Table 2) was significantly higher in Al-berta-BC Peace River (17 mg/kg) than Saskatchewan (11 mg/kg) and Manitoba (5 mg/kg). Some areas in Alberta-Peace River showed chlorophyll content averages higher than 20 mg/kg.
Table 2: 2019 Canadian canola harvest: Canola quality data by grade and province – oil, pro-tein, chlorophyll and glucosinolate contents. see table on PDF file
Total seed glucosinolate averages were very similar to last year (9 μmol/g in 2019 versus 10 μmol/g in 2018 and for the 5-year average). There was no difference between provinces regarding the av-erage of the total glucosinolate contents (Table 2).
The oleic acid content average of the 2019 canola crop was much lower than what was observed in 2018 (62.43% versus 64.3%) or for the 5 year-average (63.1%). The highest oleic acid content aver-age was observed in Manitoba, whereas the lowest average was observed in Alberta (Table 3). This decrease in oleic acid content was accompanied by a sharp increase in α-linolenic acid content (10.0% in 2019 versus 8.7% in 2018), whereas linoleic acid content increased slightly (18.7% in 2019 and 18.3% in 2018) when compared to the 2018 crop. The highest α-linolenic acid content average was observed in Alberta-BC Peace River and the lowest in Manitoba. The 2019 fatty acid composi-tion resulted in a very different iodine value in 2019 when compared to the 2018 canola crop, 113.7 units in 2019 versus 111.0 units for 2018.
Total saturated fatty acid content for the 2019 canola crop was like what was observed in 2018 (6.6% versus 6.7%), with growing conditions having little effect on total saturates content in Canada.
The mean free fatty acids (FFA) average levels in 2019 Canola (0.16%), No.1 Canada seed was like what was observed in 2018 (0.15%) (Table 3). Individual samples showed a range of FFA level as harvest was done in wet conditions for the most part of the prairies.
Table 3 – 2019 Canadian canola harvest: Canola quality data mean by grade and province – free fatty acid content and fatty acid composition of the oil - see table on PDF file
Quality of winter rapeseed in France harvest 2019
Each year in France, the Observatory on the quality of winter rapeseed in France allows to assess the main qualitative criteria of the harvest. Most samples are taken just after harvest, when farmers deliver them to the collecting body, cooperative or merchant. The harvest deals with winter rapeseed as the production of spring rapeseed is very limited in France.
In France, the 2018/19 rapeseed campaign was marked by very dry conditions late summer and autumn until the end of October in most regions, leading to a drop in sown acreages - 40 to 60% in some regions - and late emergence in part of the fields. The mild autumn and winter period allowed growth to catch up and a partial recovery of the crop. Spring was temperate and dry, drought penalized in the crops especially in shallow soils sometimes beginning in flowering times. The campaign was also marked by pest attacks, starting in autumn in the East and in spring in most regions (pollen beetle), with in the background an increasing resistance to insecticides. Overall, rapeseed was found to be very heterogeneous depending on the conditions of emergence and the water reserves of the soils in spring; yields were very variable.
The average impurity rate of the 2019 harvest was at the same level as in 2018: 1.4%, with high vari-ability between samples, especially in the South. Again, this year, the water content was well below the marketing standard (9%) with an average value of 6.2%. This value is the lowest recorded since the start of the seed quality survey (1991).
The average oil content was 43%, on commercial standards basis (9.0% moisture), lower than the per-formance in 2018 and slightly below the five-year average (43.6%). However, in view of the extreme conditions of the 2018/19 campaign, the observed oil content remained satisfactory. Especially since the proportion of samples whose oil content met the marketing standard was significant for all pro-duction areas and was better than in 2018.
Opposite to oil content, the protein content average, 39.2% (expressed on dry and de-oiled seed), corresponded to the 2nd highest value since 2007. The low variability of the protein contents observed this year resulted from relatively homogeneous climatic conditions at the national level. The noticeable water stress at the time of seed filling led to a concentration of the protein in the seeds at the expense of the oil. It also resulted in a relatively low weight of a thousand grains, which partly explained the low national yields observed this year: 3,1 ton / ha on average according to Agreste (November 2019).
In 2019, the average value for the glucosinolate content was 15.7 μmol / g at 9% moisture; the highest levels were found in the Atlantic coast and the Center-West, which suffered the heaviest stress (weak growth in autumn, strong pressure from pests).
The average linolenic acid (omega-3) content was 9.4% of the total fatty acids out of 105 controlled samples. It is well above the five-year average (8.8%). A significant decrease of more than one point was observed between the Atlantic coast and the East. The Atlantic coast benefited from early flowering, with temperatures, especially at night, relatively low, which favored the accumulation of linolenic acid. Overall, the accumulation of low temperatures, even frost temperatures, observed in the postflowering period (between flowering and flowering + 60 days), contributed to the improvement of omega-3 contents in 2019.
France: 26e Carrefour de la sélection du colza / 26th Seminar on Rapeseed Breeding. January 22-23, 2020
Since 1977, the French association Promosol has been supporting works on oilseed crops breeding (rapeseed and sunflower) and promoting the dissemination of scientific progress. Promosol members are institutions: Terres Univia (Interprofessional Organization of the French Oil and protein crops sector), Terres Inovia (Technical Institute of the French Oil and protein crops sector), INRAE (National Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment Research), and UFS (French seed association for seed companies & plant breeders). Promosol defines research priorities of common interest, funds key research programs and disseminates results to breeders and farmers. The association organizes the Carrefour de la Sélection du colza every year in January.
The 26th “Carrefour de la Sélection du Colza”, took place January 22nd and 23rd, 2020 in Orléans (France, Loiret). It brought together 70 participants from public research and higher education sector (INRAE, Ag-rocampus Ouest, Universities), GEVES (French Variety and Seed Study and Control Group), the industry and private rapeseed breeders.
The Carrefour was co-chaired by Martine Leflon, head of genetics and crop protection department at Terres Inovia, and lead of the Promosol rapeseed commission, and Maria Manzanares-Dauleux, director of the UMR IGEPP (INRAE-AgroCampus Ouest- University of Rennes I) and chair of the Promosol scientific council.
Exchanges on rapeseed genetics and breeding
The “Carrefour de la Sélection du Colza” is mainly an opportunity to take note of the progress of four research projects funded by Promosol (see below) and more widely to discuss the most important chal-lenges of rapeseed breeding.
Experts from Terres Inovia were present: Arnaud Van Boxsom, head of varietal evaluation, presented the work in progress on the evaluation of the rapeseed vigor during autumn; Etienne Pilorgé, in charge of international relations, spoke about the evolution of the GCIRC, Christophe Jestin, in charge of genetics and crop protection, as well as Xavier Pinochet, expert in scientific strategies, were also present and participated in the exchanges.
A workshop, carried out during this event, was the opportunity to share the different visions of breeders, research organizations and actors of the sector (GEVES and technical institutes) on the varietal character-istics and their importance in different production systems and the method to evaluate them.
Update on four projects funded by Promosol
The Carrefour was an opportunity to follow the progress of the four ongoing research projects funded by PROMOSOL:
DELUGE- Unlocking the genetic fight against the winter flea beetle (coordinators: Maxime Hervé & Anne Marie Cortesero (UMR IGEPP, Rennes)
There are concerns that growing rapeseed in France might encounter a deadlock due winter flea beetle (Psylliodes chrysocephala) control. This project proposes a genetic strategy with the creation of canola-resistant rapeseed varieties. Three obstacles hamper the development of this approach: the absence of resistance in B. napus, the lack of a standardized biotest to assess resistance to larvae and the absence of methodology for rearing the insect, which would allow to work with it in the laboratory all along the year.
The DELUGE project aims to identify a rapeseed related species resistant to the winter flea beetle, which could provide genetic resistance for future introgression in rapeseed. It also looks at complementing the current adults’ resistance biotest, developing larvae resistance tests and working on flea beetle breeding.
SEEDQUAL - Characterization of the genetic diversity of the composition of rapeseed and meal for uses in animal feed (coordinator: Nathalie Nesi, UMR IGEPP, Rennes)
Population growth and rising living standards will increase food consumption of vegetable oils and pro-teins by 2030. Vegetable oil resources will meet the demand for food and contribute to energy and chem-istry demands in the future. On the other hand, the supply of oil cakes will be tight. Reducing the shortage of vegetable protein supplies in Europe is a major challenge for the competitiveness of the agricultural sector.
The main oil and protein crops are sources of vegetable proteins, which have hitherto been valued from oil extraction cakes. However, the quality of rapeseed meal is affected by factors intrinsic to the seed and by the crushing process, which is currently optimized for oil extraction. The challenge for the oil and pro-tein crop sector is therefore to develop, in addition to the "noble" product that is oil, oil cake as a high value-added product.
The SEEDQUAL project therefore aims to provide a detailed description of the composition of rapeseed, in particular in fibers and proteins, to identify the genetic variability available for the various constituents and to develop medium-high speed tools to assess these variables in breeding programs.
SEEDQUAL partners have complementary skills that will allow them to combine quantitative genetics, structural genomics, functional genomics, and analytical biochemistry.
DESCRIBE - Chemotypic diversity in Brassica napus (coordinators: Antoine Gravot and Alain Bouchereau (UMR IGEPP, Rennes))
The objective of this project is to carry out, from a large panel of B. napus genotypes (winter and spring type), an in-depth chemotypic analysis of a few chemical families of rapeseed secondary metabolism, considered to be determining in the interactions with the biotic environment of plants. Many of these metabolic factors also contribute to the qualitative properties of the products, particularly the seed.
The targeted analytical approach especially considers the chemical constituents of the glucosinolates fam-ily, flavonoids, and volatile terpene compounds. The first step is to improve the analytical procedures for the qualitative and quantitative description of these bioactive substances and to adapt them for the es-tablishment of plants phytochemical profiles. The choice to take into account a genetic diversity as wide as possible leads to limit the investigations to a single phenological stage (early vegetative development) and to reduce the number of tissues and organs (seeds, roots and leaves), from plants grown under opti-mal conditions.
Chemotypic analyses concern a panel of 250 rapeseed accessions representative of the valuable genetic diversity and used for association genetic analyses.
Metaphor- Use of metatranscriptomic data from "LeptoLife" for the identification and monitoring of new sources of phoma resistance in rapeseed (coordinator: Thierry Rouxel, INRAE UMR BIOGER)
The Metaphor project focuses on the interaction between rapeseed and the pathogens responsible for the phoma, Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa.
Its objective is to analyse and use the data from the "Leptolife" large-scale sequencing project to: - Characterize the mechanisms giving resistance in the adult stage and the counteraction mechanisms of the fungus, - Identify new genes involved in resistance (leaf resistance to ascospore infection, resistance at adult stage), - Identify new AvrLm genes of the fungus expressed only in ascospores allowing to screen new Rlm genes in rapeseed genotypes, - Identify candidate genes for screening plant genotypes showing increased adult resistance.
We can therefore hope that this work will provide new tools for the screening of genetic resources based on our previous experience of generation of genetically improved strains for the identification of Rlm genes.
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Trif A, Gidea M, Cioineag C, Cimpeanu S.M. The usage of the FAE fixed wing UAV for the evaluation of affected rapeseed culture du to pest attacks REFERENCE
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White, J., Berg, A. A., Champagne, C., Zhang, Y., Chipanshi, A., & Daneshfar, B. (2020). Improving crop yield forecasts with satellite-based soil moisture estimates: An example for township level canola yield forecasts over the Canadian Prairies. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoin-formation, 89, 102092. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2020.102092
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Tatari, S., Ghaderi-Far, F., Yamchi, A., Siahmarguee, A., Shayanfar, A., & Baskin, C. C. (2020). Application of the hydrotime model to assess seed priming effects on the germination of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) in response to water stress. Botany, (999), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2019-0192
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Doğru, A., Çakirlar, H. Effects of leaf age on chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant enzymes activity in winter rapeseed leaves under cold acclimation conditions. Braz. J. Bot 43, 11–20 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40415-020-00577-9
Davoudi, A., Zeinalzadeh-Tabrizi, H., & Shirani-Rad, A. Effect of selenium foliar application on some quan-titative and qualitative characteristics of rapeseed cultivars under end-season thermal stress. Jour-nal of Crop Breeding, 0-0. (Persian, English abstract) jcb.san ru.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=1076&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Wang, F., Zhong, F., Zhang, S., Zhang, P., Chen, F., Li, W., & ZHANG, S. (2020). Triadimefon increases drought tolerance through the regulation of photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in rape-seed at bolting stage. Photosynthetica, 58(1), 100-109. https://ps.ueb.cas.cz/pdfs/phs/2020/01/12.pdf
Dai, L., Li, J., Harmens, H., Zheng, X., & Zhang, C. (2020). Melatonin enhances drought resistance by regu-lating leaf stomatal behaviour, root growth and catalase activity in two contrasting rapeseed (Bras-sica napus L.) genotypes. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 149, 86-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.01.039
Naveed, M., Sajid, H., Mustafa, A., Niamat, B., Ahmad, Z., Yaseen, M., ... & Chen, J. T. (2020). Alleviation of Salinity-Induced Oxidative Stress, Improvement in Growth, Physiology and Mineral Nutrition of Canola (Brassica napus L.) through Calcium-Fortified Composted Animal Manure. Sustainability, 12(3), 846. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030846
Ma Ni, Wan Lin, Zhao Wei, Liu H. F., Li Jun, & ZHANG C L. (2020). Exogenous strigolactones promote lateral root growth by reducing the endogenous auxin level in rapeseed. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(2), 465-482. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62810-8
QUALITY and PRODUCTS
Barthet V. J., Petryk M.W.P., Siemens B. Rapid Nondestructive Analysis of Intact Canola Seeds Using a Handheld Near‐Infrared Spectrometer https://doi.org/10.1002/aocs.12335
Rokosik, Ewa, Krzysztof Dwiecki, and Aleksander Siger. "The quality of cold-pressed rapeseed oil obtained from seeds of Brassica napus L. with increased moisture content." Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria 18.2 (2019): 205-218. https://doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2019.0672
Mohseni, N. M., Mirzaei, H. O., & Moghimi, M. (2020). Optimization of producing oil and meal from canola seeds using microwave− pulsed electric field pretreatment. OCL, 27, 2.https://doi.org/10.1051/ocl/2019050
Romero-Guzmán, M. J., Jung, L., Kyriakopoulou, K., Boom, R. M., & Nikiforidis, C. V. (2020). Efficient single-step rapeseed oleosome extraction using twin-screw press. Journal of Food Engineering, 276, 109890. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2019.109890
Romero-Guzmán, M. J., Köllmann, N., Zhang, L., Boom, R. M., & Nikiforidis, C. V. (2020). Controlled oleo-some extraction to produce a plant-based mayonnaise-like emulsion using solely rapeseed seeds. LWT, 123, 109120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109120
Asl, P. J., Niazmand, R., & Yahyavi, F. (2020). Extraction of phytosterols and tocopherols from rapeseed oil waste by supercritical CO2 plus co-solvent: A comparison with conventional solvent extraction. Heliyon, 6(3), e03592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03592
Sikorska, E., Wójcicki, K., Kozak, W., Gliszczyńska-Świgło, A., Khmelinskii, I., Górecki, T., ... & Pasqualone, A. (2019). Front-Face Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Quality Control of Cold-Pressed Rapeseed Oil During Storage. Foods, 8(12), 665. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120665
Wang, M., Zhang, J., Chen, J., Jing, B., Zhang, L., & Yu, X. (2019). Characterization of Differences in Flavor in Virgin Rapeseed Oils by Using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, Electronic Nose, and Sensory Analysis. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 1900205. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201900205
Zhang, Y., Wu, G., Chang, C., Lv, Y., Lai, W., Zhang, H., ... & Jin, Q. Determination of Origin of Commercial Flavor Rapeseed Oil by the Pattern of Volatile Compounds obtained via GC/MS and Flash GC Elec-tronic Nose. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 1900332. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201900332
Hou, Z., Cao, X., Cao, L., Ling, G., Yu, Z., Pang, M., ... & Jiang, S. (2020). The removal of phospholipid from crude rapeseed oil by enzyme-membrane binding. Journal of Food Engineering, 109910. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2020.109910
Abdellah, M. H., Scholes, C. A., Liu, L., & Kentish, S. E. (2020). Efficient degumming of crude canola oil using ultrafiltration membranes and bio-derived solvents. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 59, 102274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2019.102274
Kasprzak, M., Rudzińska, M., Przybylski, R., Kmiecik, D., Siger, A., & Olejnik, A. (2020). The degradation of bioactive compounds and formation of their oxidation derivatives in refined rapeseed oil during heating in model system. LWT, 123, 109078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109078
Kmiecik, D., Fedko, M., Siger, A., & Kulczyński, B. (2019). Degradation of Tocopherol Molecules and Its Impact on the Polymerization of Triacylglycerols during Heat Treatment of Oil. Molecules, 24(24), 4555. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244555
Schmid, T., Baumer, B., Rüegg, R., Näf, P., Kinner, M., & Müller, N. (2020). Evaluation of innovative tech-nological approaches to replace palm fat with physically modified Swiss rapeseed oil in bakery products. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.14564
Hussain, S., Rehman, A. U., Luckett, D. J., Blanchard, C. L., Obied, H. K., & Strappe, P. (2020). Phenolic Compounds with Antioxidant Properties from Canola Meal Extracts Inhibit Adipogenesis. Interna-tional Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010001
Hao, Y., Wang, Z., Zou, Y., He, R., Ju, X., & Yuan, J. (2020). Effect of Static‐State Fermentation on Volatile Composition in Rapeseed Meal. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10238
Tie, Y., Li, L., Liu, J., Liu, C., Fu, J., Xiao, X., ... & Wang, J. (2020). Two‐step biological approach for treatment of rapeseed meal. Journal of Food Science, 85(2), 340-348. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15011
Zhang, Z., Wen, M., & Chang, Y. (2020). Degradation of glucosinolates in rapeseed meal by Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Bacillus subtilis. Grain & Oil Science and Technology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaost.2020.02.003
Herrmann, K. R., Ruff, A. J., & Schwaneberg, U. (2020). Phytase-Based Phosphorus Recovery Process for 20 Distinct Press Cakes. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 8(9), 3913-3921. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b07433
Sánchez-Moya, A., García-Meilán, I., Riera-Heredia, N., Vélez, E. J., Lutfi, E., Fontanillas, R., ... & Navarro, I. (2020). Effects of different dietary vegetable oils on growth and intestinal performance, lipid me-tabolism and flesh quality in gilthead sea bream. Aquaculture, 519, 734881. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734881
Gan, L., Feng, L., Jiang, W. D., Wu, P., Liu, Y., Jiang, J., ... & Zhou, X. Q. (2020). Erucic acid impairs intestinal immune function of on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquaculture, 519, 734916. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734916
Sissener, N. H., Araujo, P., Sæle, Ø., Rosenlund, G., Stubhaug, I., & Sanden, M. (2020). Dietary 18: 2n-6 affects EPA (20: 5n-3) and ARA (20: 4n-6) content in cell membranes and eicosanoid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture, 522, 735098. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquacul-ture.2020.735098
Kaczmarek, S. A., Hejdysz, M., Kubiś, M., Nowaczewski, S., Mikuła, R., & Rutkowski, A. (2019). Effects of feeding intact, ground and/or pelleted rapeseed on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broiler chickens. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/1745039X.2019.1688557
Kuźniacka, J., Biesek, J., Banaszak, M., Rutkowski, A., Kaczmarek, S., Adamski, M., & Hejdysz, M. (2020). Effect of Dietary Protein Sources Substituting Soybean Meal on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Ducks. Animals, 10(1), 133. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010133
Kawabata, F., Dey, B., Yoshida, Y., Nishimura, S., & Tabata, S. (2019). Bitter Taste Receptor Antagonists Inhibit the Bitter taste of Canola Meal Extract in Chickens. The Journal of Poultry Science, 0190099. https://doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.0190099
Hanna, C., Munoz, J., Utterback, P., & Parsons, C. M. (2020). Research Note: Phosphorus digestibility in conventional canola meal determined using different balance assays. Poultry Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2019.12.057
Kowalska, D., Strychalski, J., Zwoliński, C., Gugołek, A., & MATUSEVICIUS, P. (2020). The Effect of Mixture of Rapeseed Meal, White Lupin Seed, and Pea Seed in Rabbit Diets on Performance Indicators and Fatty Acid Profile of Meat and Fat. Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi. Kars: Kafkas Univ, Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, 2020, vol. 00, no. 00. www.vetdergikafkas.org/up-loads/pdf/pdf_KVFD_2694.pdf or
Grabež, V., Egelandsdal, B., Kjos, N. P., Håkenåsen, I. M., Mydland, L. T., Vik, J. O., ... & Øverland, M. (2020). Replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal and faba beans in a growing-finishing pig diet: Effect on growth performance, meat quality and metabolite changes. Meat Science, 108134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108134
Mohammadi, M., Imani, A., Farhangi, M., Gharaei, A., & Hafezieh, M. (2020). Replacement of fishmeal with processed canola meal in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Growth perfor-mance, mucosal innate immunity, hepatic oxidative status, liver, and intestine histology. Aquacul-ture, 518, 734824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734824
Paula, E. M., Broderick, G. A., & Faciola, A. P. (2020). Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal for lactating dairy cows fed 3 different ratios of alfalfa to corn silage. Journal of Dairy Science, 103(2), 1463-1471. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-16947
Vatandoost, M., & Didarkhah, M. Effect of Different Levels of Soybean Oil, Soybean and Canola Meal on Production Performance, Rumination Activity and Nutrient Digestibility in Holstein Dairy Cows. Re-search On Animal Production (Scientific and Research), 0-0. http://rap.sanru.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=1008&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Brock, D., Koder, A., Rabl, H. P., Touraud, D., & Kunz, W. (2020). Optimising the biodiesel production pro-cess: Implementation of glycerol derivatives into biofuel formulations and their potential to form hydrofuels. Fuel, 264, 116695. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.116695
Zieniuk, B., Wołoszynowska, M., & Białecka-Florjańczyk, E. (2020). Enzymatic Synthesis of Biodiesel by Direct Transesterification of Rapeseed Cake. International Journal of Food Engineering, 16(3). https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe-2019-0089
Encinar, J. M., Nogales-Delgado, S., Sánchez, N., & González, J. F. (2020). Biolubricants from Rapeseed and Castor Oil Transesterification by Using Titanium Isopropoxide as a Catalyst: Production and Char-acterization. Catalysts, 10(4), 366. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10040366
Tan, L., Zhong, J., Jin, Y. L., Sun, Z. Y., Tang, Y. Q., & Kida, K. (2020). Production of bioethanol from un-washed-pretreated rapeseed straw at high solid loading. Bioresource Technology, 303, 122949. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.122949
Xu, C., Xia, T., Wang, J. et al. Selectively Desirable Rapeseed and Corn Stalks Distinctive for Low-Cost Bio-ethanol Production and High-Active Biosorbents. Waste Biomass Valor (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-020-01026-0
Hýsková, P., Hýsek, Š., Schönfelder, O., Šedivka, P., Lexa, M., & Jarský, V. (2020). Utilization of agricultural rests: Straw-based composite panels made from enzymatic modified wheat and rapeseed straw. Industrial Crops and Products, 144, 112067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.112067
Moreno-González, M., Girish, V., Keulen, D., Wijngaard, H., Lauteslager, X., Ferreira, G., & Ottens, M. (2020). Recovery of sinapic acid from canola/rapeseed meal extracts by adsorption. Food and Bi-oproducts Processing, 120, 69-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2019.12.002
Cong, Y., Zheng, M., Huang, F., Liu, C., & Zheng, C. (2020). Sinapic acid derivatives in microwave-pretreated rapeseeds and minor components in oils. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 87, 103394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2019.103394
Fetzer, A., Hintermayr, C., Schmid, M. et al. Effect of Acylation of Rapeseed Proteins with Lauroyl and Oleoyl Chloride on Solubility and Film-Forming Properties. Waste Biomass Valor (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-020-01012-6
Ivdre, A., Abolins, A., Sevastyanova, I., Kirpluks, M., Cabulis, U., & Merijs-Meri, R. (2020). Rigid Polyure-thane Foams with Various Isocyanate Indices Based on Polyols from Rapeseed Oil and Waste PET. Polymers, 12(4), 738. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12040738
Chen, W., Li, X., Ma, X. et al. Simultaneous hydrolysis with lipase and fermentation of rapeseed cake for iturin A production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CX-20. BMC Biotechnol 19, 98 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12896-019-0591-x
Yu, G., Guo, T., & Huang, Q. (2020). Preparation of rapeseed oil with superhigh canolol content and supe-rior quality characteristics by steam explosion pretreatment technology. Food Science & Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1502
ECONOMY and MARKET
Deepayan Debnath, Jarrett Whistance, Patrick Westhoff, Mike Helmar, Chapter 9 - Consequences of US and EU biodiesel policies on global food security. Editor(s): Deepayan Debnath, Suresh Chandra Babu. Biofuels, Bioenergy and Food Security, Academic Press, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803954-0.00009-7
Declerck, Francis and Indjehagopian, Jean-Pierre and Lantz, Frederic, Dynamics of Biofuel Prices on the European Market: Impact of the EU Environmental Policy on the Resources Markets (February 21, 2020). Available at SSRN: ssrn.com/abstract=3542376 or
Oleynikova, E. N., Yanova, M. A., Sharopatova, A. V., & Grishina, I. I. (2020, January). Comparative evalua-tion of the economic efficiency of the rapeseed cultivation by the traditional method and using the principles of organic production. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 421, No. 3, p. 032005). IOP Publishing. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/421/3/032005/meta
PREPRINT: Meijaard, E., Brooks, T., Carlson, K., Slade, E. M., Ulloa, J. G., Gaveau, D. L., ... & Ancrenaz, M. (2020). The environmental impacts of palm oil in context. https://eartharxiv.org/e69bz/
Beyer, R. M., Duran, A. P., Rademacher, T. T., Martin, P., Tayleur, C., Brooks, S. E., ... & Sanderson, F. J. (2020). The environmental impacts of palm oil and its alternatives. bioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.16.951301
Tao, J., Wu, W., Liu, W., & Xu, M. (2020). Exploring the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Winter Rape on the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Valley Using Time-Series MODIS Data. Sustainability, 12(2), 466. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020466
Goncharov, S. V., & Shokhina, L. V. (2020, March). How to Share Value in Seed Market?. In International Scientific Conference" Far East Con"(ISCFEC 2020) (pp. 1803-1807). Atlantis Press. https://doi.org/10.2991/aebmr.k.200312.250
Karpavičienė, Birutė, Nijolė Maršalkienė, and Liuda Žilėnaitė. "Seed composition of different Camelina sativa and Crambe abyssinica cultivars." 26th NJF Congress: Agriculture for the Next 100 Years, 27-29 June, 2018 Kaunas r. Lithuania: Programme and Summaries of Presentations. Akademija, 2018. 2018. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/92459
Salas, H., Castillejos, L., López-Suárez, M., & Ferret, A. (2019). In Vitro Digestibility, In Situ Degradability, Rumen Fermentation and N Metabolism of Camelina Co-Products for Beef Cattle Studied with a Dual Flow Continuous Culture System. Animals, 9(12), 1079. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121079
We invite you to share information with the rapeseed/canola community: let us know the scientific projects, events organized in your country, crop performances or any information of interest in rapeseed/canola R&D. Contact GCIRC News: Etienne Pilorgé, GCIRC Secretary-Treasurer: e.pilorge(at)terresinovia.fr Contact GCIRC: contact(at)gcirc.org
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